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Western Abenaki Dictionary


The Wampanoag Language also known as Massachusett, Pokanoket or Natick is an Algonkian language of New England. Narragansett is considered by some linguists to have been a Wampanoag dialect, by others a distinct language.

The Wampanoag people also called Massasoit, or W8panaak, are a Native American tribe. Many Wampanoag people today are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) of Massachusetts, or four state-recognized tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In the beginning of the 17th century, at the time of first contact with the English, the Wampanoag lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, as well as within a territory that encompassed current day Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. While the tribe largely disappeared from historical records from the late 18th century, its people persisted. Some survivors remained in their traditional areas and continued many aspects of their culture, others moved north and west where they were absorbed into other Native communities. Although the last native speakers of W8panaak died more than 100 years ago, since 1993 Wampanoag people have been working on a language revival project that is producing new native speakers. The project is also working on curriculum and teacher development.

WILLIAM BOWMAN (app. 1620-?)
William is the first documented Native Bowman.

William Bowman in 1656 was of Natick but prior to that year resided on land that eventually became part of Framingham. "Natick was first settled in 1651 by John Eliot, a Puritan missionary born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England who received a commission and funds from England's Long Parliament to settle the Massachusett Indians on both sides of the Charles River, on land deeded from the settlement at Dedham. They were called Praying Indians Natick was the first and for a long time served as the center of Eliot's network of praying towns. While the town's were largely self-governing under Indian leaders, the praying Indians were subject to rules governing conformity to English Puritan culture (in practice Natick, like the other praying towns, evidenced a combination of traditional and English culture and practices). Eliot and Praying Indian translators printed America's first written Bible in the Algonquian language. The colonial government placed such settlements in a ring of villages around Boston as a defensive strategy. Natick was the first and best documented of such settlements. The land was granted by the General Court, part of the Dedham Grant."

Deed of John Stone
This witnesseth that William Boman, Capt. Josiah, Roger, & James, and Keaquisan, Indians, now living at Natick the Indian Plantation near Sudbury in the Massachusetts Bay in New England, for and in consideration of a valuable sum of Peage and other goods to us in hand paid by John Stone of Sudbury aforenamed to our full content & satisfaction, before the signing and delivery hereof have given, granted, bargained & sould, assigned, enfeoffed & confirmed, and by theis presents do give, grant, bargain & sell, assign, enfeoffe and confirm unto the said J. Stone, his Heyres & assignes, a parcell of Broaken-up and fenced in land, lying on the South side of Sudbury line, upon the Falls of Sudbury River, and bounded with the Common land surrounding. The said land containing by estimation about ten Acres more or less. To have & to hould the said land with the fences and all other the privileges and Appurtenances thereof be the same more or less, to him the said J. Stone, his Heyres and Assignes forever, to his and their only propper use & behooffe. In witness whereof wee the above named Indians have hereunto put our hands & scales this 15th day of May 1656.

2 97 2003.066.8.20 Deed of William Boman [et al., Indians] to John Stone for bland at the falls of the Sudbury River, in consideration of a valuable sum of peage and other goods : photocopy and typed transcription / original March 15, 1656. LINCOLN PUBLIC LIBRARY Bedford Road, Lincoln, Massachusetts ARCHIVES/ SPECIAL COLLECTIONS Stone Family Papers 2003.066

Indian William's meadow, was the name of about three acres of land, near the falls of Cochituate brook, and was granted to Rev. Edmund Brown. It was originally owned by William Boman.

Roger's Field was also at Saxonville, and took in the large tract bounded east by a line from the Falls along by Stone's hall to the turn in the river, north by the river, south by the river and Boman's brook, west by a ditch running from the brook to the river. Deeds of the property have been lately found.

Assuming that Boman and Roger were original proprietors, it is fitting that their names should be commemorated in the plain and brook which still mark the location of their ancient inheritance.

"Indian William's meadow," which lay near the old cotton-factory dam, was probably named for William Boman. Very likely he had his fishing-weir at this point in the brook. The laying out of this meadow to Rev. Edmund Browne of Sudbury, is thus recorded : "Item, one smale parcell of three acres, formerly called Indian William's meadow, lying towards the falls of Chochittuat river."

'Indian History of the Plantation', Boman and Roger have already been noticed as grantors of land near the Falls, and as commemorated in the names of Bowman's Brook and Roger's Field.  Other Indian names of hills, ponds and streams, (and those in some instances corrupted), are meager, yet pleasant memorials transmitted to us, of the aboriginal race (Indian arrow-heads have been frequently found in ploughed fields in this town.  Bowman's Brook may be named after the Bowman Indian family who married into the Natick Wiser Indian family. - A History of Framingham, Massachusetts, Including the Plantation, from 1640 to the Present Time by William Barry, Boston: James Munroe and Company, 1847, p.18

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ID: I4250
Given Name: John
Surname: Boman
Sex: M
Birth: around 1650 in Natick Indian, Sudbury, Middlesex, MA
Death: Y
Reference Number: MISC.
Change Date: 6 Sep 2001 at 19:17
Note: NAT: Natick Indian

"JEHOJAKIM, John MAGUS, John MUSKQUA and his 2 daughters. Esther and Rachel, Benjamin BOHUE, John SPEEN and SARAH his wife, James SPEEN, Dorothy WENNETOO and Humphry BOHUE her son, Mary NEPPAMUN, Abagail the daughter of Josiah HARDING, Peter JETHRO, Peter MUSKQUAMOGH, John BOMAN, David MUNNOAH and Betty, signed deed." "Wee saw Benjamin BOHEN, Dorothy WAUNETO, and Mary and Betty NEPANUM sign." also "CHARLS JOSIAS, Sachem of Mass." also "William STOUGHTON, Joseph DUDELY, Robert V. MONTAGUE, William W. AHANTON. Wit: Andrew PITTAMEE, James RUMNEY, Samuel GOFF, James BARNARD, Daniel SACONAMBATT." - Registry of Deeds at East Cambridge, 11 JULY 1684: book IX p.344-352

Mary NEPPAMUN and Wee saw Benjamin BOHEN (also spelled BOHEW) could be potentially related forms of the Bowman name. However, further examples and research is needed to come to any substantial conclusion.

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The above deed was not received until years after the grant was made by the Court, and the lands divided up and apportioned to the inhabitants. The records do not state what occasioned the long delay, but, as was the case elsewhere, perhaps the papers were not passed until, in process of time, the settlers questioned whether the claim to the territory was valid until purchased of the Indian proprietors. A similar instance occurred at Groton, where the deed came long after the lands were occupied. The grant was allowed by the Court as early as 1655, but no title was obtained from the natives till about 1683 or 1684.

From lands thus allowed, the Plantation of Sudbury was formed. It required, however, more than the allowance and laying out of the land and the settlement of it to make it a town. A separate act of incorporation was necessary to complete the work. This was done September 4, 1639, when the Court ordered that "the newe Plantation by Concord shall be called Sudbury." - Colony Records, Vol. I., p. 271

Peter Jethro, Indian, appeared before me the fifth day of February 1684 & freely acknowledged this writing within to be his act & deed & ythe put his hand & seale thereunto. Daniel Gookin Sen. Affift

John Boman did sign seale & deliver the within written deed the 23rd of February in the year our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty & four in presence of us

John Balcom -^- Samuel Freeman his marke.

James Speen & John Bowman appeared before me in court at Natick & acknowledged they have signed & sealed this instrument among others May 13th, 1684. James Gookin Sen. Affist
Roxbury April, 1685.

James Speen and John Bowman appeared before me in court at Natick "acknowledged they have signed" sealed this instrument among others May 13th, 1684.
- APA: Hudson, Alfred Sereno. (2013). pp. 68-9. The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts. London: Forgotten Books. (Original work published 1889)
- MLA: Hudson, Alfred Sereno. The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts. 1889. Reprint. London: Forgotten Books, 2013. 68-9. Print.

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Samuel Bowman was born about 1690, probably in Natick and died about 1747 in Worcester, MA. He made his way to the Nipmuc homeland of Pakachoag Hill, in what was now the English town of Worcester, shortly after he was named a Natick proprietor in 1719. In an affidavit filed after he died in 1749, at the age of roughly fifty, his heirs stated that their deceased father lived in Worcester and places adjacent for more than twenty years before his death. Samuel was likely a great-grandson of William Bowman.

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"Awaasamug, Bowman, Ephraim, Peegun, Rumneymarsh, Speen, Tray, and Waban. The surnames BOWMAN and Tray could be English. I counted towns with these surnames only if the record included the notation "Indian" or "Colored." ... This list could be greatly expanded if other Natick names with strong connection were included. This figure is presented to provide a sense and conservative estimate of the complex network of Indian places into which Natick Indians were connected."

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Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, By Jean M. O'Brie

Children of Samuel Bowman:


1. Martha BOWMAN who married Joseph Pegan. From the same article, page 57: 'Daughter Martha had married Joseph Pegan, a Nipmuc Indian who owned real estate in Dudley, the English town that included Chaubunagungamaug reservation lands. They lived 'in English fashion' and were eager to receive their portion of the estate [of Samuel, her father] in order to make material improvements to their property.'

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- Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, By Jean M. O'Brie 2. Ruth BOWMAN Married James Wiser. Ruth and James son Benjamin was born about 1743. When Samuel Bowman's estate was probated in 1749, Benjamin was residing with his aunt and uncle, Betty and Zachariah Equi in Sturbridge, MA. Benjamin Wiser would marry Abigial Thomas, June 25, 1767 in Sturbridge. No other children are known for Ruth and James Wiser.

3. Betty BOWMAN who married Zachariah Equi. From Holly Izard's article, page 57: Daughter Betty Equi and husband Zachariah were 'dwellers on land belonging to others' in the southern Worcester County town of Sturbridge, probably living on what was the Nipmuc homeland of Tantiusque.' No children known.

4. Lydia BOWMAN. After the death of her father in 1749, it appears she lived with her mother in Worcester, MA. At this time, she was a young woman. From the same article, page 57: 'When she reached adulthood Lydia Bowman had a relationship with, and possibly married, a man whose surname was Crosman; their only child, Hepsibeth, was born March 25, 1761. Hannah Hemenway [this is Hepsibeth's daughter] variously told reporters that Hepsibeth was an 'Indian maiden' and that she was 'half Indian and half white.' Hepsibeth's mother was of Nipmuc ancestry and her father may have been partially Indian, possibly the son of Mashpee Indian Dorkus Wicket and a white man named Samuel Croshman recorded in Rhode Island records. Hannah said her father died in the Revolution. His service cannot be confirmed in military records for Massachusetts, though he may have served from another colony. The lack of information on Hepsibeth's father in public records, and the fact that local residents consistently attributed the Bowman surname to her even though she used Crosman, suggests her father was not of Worcester. Hepsibeth would have been fourteen when her father went off to war and probably in her late teens when he died. Drawing on the general experience of Native Americans at the time, she and her widowed mother Lydia probably supported themselves by gathering wild edibles, cultivating a small patch of ground, hiring their labor to white families, exchanging items they produced for needed supplies, and relying on the good will of others.' Her only known child, Hepsibeth BOWMAN Hemenway died February 17, 1848, when she was eighty-six years old.


File written by Adobe Photoshop¨ 5.0

Hepsibeth Bowman's photo is published here with the permission of the Worcester Historical Society Worcester, Massachusetts They are in possession of the original portrait Painted in 1840, Hepsibeth being in her 70s. Her portrait has been on display at the Worcester Historical Museum in Worcester, Massachusetts. Hepsibeth BOWMAN's portrait is one of only six actual known portraits of New England Indians. There is an article about her portrait in the 'Old-Time New England Magazine', Fall/Winter 1999 issue, pages 49 through 85, by Holly V. Izard.

Hepsibeth was a descendant of Samuel Bowman, who was one of the proprietors of the town of Natick. This town was an attempt by Plymouth Colony in 1650 to Christianize Indians into being more like their English neighbors. There were several of these villages in Massachusetts and Connecticut, but Natick was the first.

Shortly after the King Phillip war the Bowmans returned to their original homeland of Worcester, which was due partly to racial strife with surrounding towns.

Hepsibeth is referred to in early newspaper articles as an Indian maiden from Packachoag Hill. She was half white, on her father's side. It was illegal for Indians to marry white people in Massachusetts and Hepsibeth is recorded on early town documents as Hepsibeth Bowman, daughter of Lydia Bowman.

source: Dawnland Voices: An Anthology of Indigenous Writing from New England edited by Siobhan Senier

5. Samuel BOWMAN Jr. (b. 1720)


Son or Martha Bowman and Joseph Pegan. Took mother's last name. Likely the gg-grandson of William BOWMAN

From page 57: 'Son Samuel Bowman Jr. attested that he had learned the 'English manner' of husbandry through years of hiring his laborer to farmers, but because he did not have the money to purchase property of his own he decided to return to Natick to live on Indian common lands.' Wife or children not known.

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The historical tribe with which the Nipmuc Nation group asserts continuity was the Hassanamisco Nipmuc of southeastern Worcester County, Massachusetts. The Hassanamisco reservation was sold in 1727, except for 500 acres which was divided in 1727 to 1730 among seven Hassanamisco proprietary families who were each given individual ownership. The land was not the common property of a tribal entity and the State did not hold title to the reserved Hassanamisco property. There was no common fund but each property-owning family got a share in the funds received from the sale of the land.

The family of John Bowman and Samuel Bowman listed above in Natick began among the Nipmuck. Their Father William Bowman was one of ten Indians who signed a deed of sale to the "Nipmug country" to English settlers at Framingham before moving to Natick. Josiah Temple explained in his History of Framingham, 'Our Indians were known by the general name of Nipnets, or Nipmucks, and the region hereabouts was for a long period called in deeds and official records, 'the Nipmug Country.'' He added that the Indians who formed communities in the area had moved there from Hassanamesit [now near Grafton, MA] and other older Nipmuc settlements. William Bowman was one of ten Indians who signed a deed of sale to English settlers at Framingham under the guidance of Daniel Gookin in 1656. - Old-Time New England Magazine, Fall/Winter 1999 issue, pages 49 through 85, by Holly V. Izard: Page 56

Deed to John Stone
Deed for a 10 acre parcel in the Saxonville section of Framingham near the Sudbury River Falls. The sellers were five Nipmuc Indians then living at the Indian Plantation of Natick. The deed is signed with their marks by William Boman (Bowman), Capt. Josiah, Roger, Keaquisam, and James. The purchase price included a "valluable sume of Peage and other goodes". The deed was witnessed by Daniel Gookin, Supt. of Indian Affairs for the Colony of Massachusett. - History of Framingham, Massachusetts, early known as Danforth's Farms, 1640-1880

From the Nipmuck Nation Application for Federal Recognition:

BOWMAN in the 1849 Massachusetts 'Indian Censuses' BRIGGS REPORT
This report was prepared by F. W. Bird, Whiting Griswold & Cyrus Weekes and was submitted to George N. Briggs, Governor of Massachusetts in 1849. The background on Briggs and this document is discussed here in a separate writing. What's reproduced here is an "as is" listing of Indian families and individuals.

JOSEPH BOWMAN Joseph Bowman (of Dudley) listed on the 1849 Briggs report may be a gggg-grandson of William Bowman.


1849, Briggs Report


Belden, Bowman, Daly, Freeman, Hall, Humphrey, Jaha, Kile (Kyle), Newton, Nichols, Pichens (Pegan), Robins, Shelby, Sprague and Willard.

BOWMAN INDIANS in the Massachusetts Archives Collection

Bowman, Samuel Jun.20, 1743 a committee authorized to sell land purchased from Samuel Bowman of Worcester in behalf of Moses and Joshua Waban Vol.31 : Page 444 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Bowman, Samuel Mar.21, 1749/1750 a petition of the heirs of Samuel Bowman of Worcester for the sale of certain property in Natick and that the proceeds of the said sale be applied for their benefit Vol.32 : Pages 6-7 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Betty Mar.21, 1749/1750 Betty Equi and other Indians are listed as heirs of Samuel Bowman; a petition that they may sell certain Natick lands belonging to the said Samuel and the proceeds to be expended for the benefit of the heirs; the said Betty living in Sturbridge desires her portion to be invested for her Vol.32 : Page 607 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Zachariah Mar.21, 1749/1750 Zachariah Equi and others are listed as heirs of Samuel Bowman; a petition of them for the sale of certain lands in Natick and the proceeds to be divided up amongst the said heirs; Zachariah living in Sturbridge desires the money to be invested for him Vol.32 : Pages 6-7 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Bowman, Martha Mar.21, 1749/1750 a petition of Martha Bowman and other heirs of Samuel Bowman of Worcester for the sale of certain land in Natick; the proceeds of the said sale are to be applied for their benefit Vol.32 : Pages 6-7 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Betty Dec.8, 1752 Betty Equi is a Sturbridge Indian; she is the wife of Zachariah Equi and the daughter of Martha Boman of Worcester; she is included in a petition for a sale of Natick land Vol.32 : Pages 316-318 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Boman, Samuel Dec.8, 1752 Samuel Boman is a Worcester Indian; he is a son of Martha Boman; John Curtis petitions to sell Natick land for him and other Indians Vol.32 : Pages 316-318 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Boman, Martha Apr. 1760 Martha Bowman is named as one of those for whom Ephraim Curtis is truste Vol.33 : Page 128 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Boman, Samuel Apr. 1760 Samuel Bowman, a son of Martha Bowman, is named as one of those for whom Ephraim Curtis is trustee Vol.33 : Page 128 Massachusetts Archives Collection


Bowman family name appears in documents dating from 1758->
The Brothertown Indians (also Brotherton), located in Wisconsin, are a Native American tribe formed in the early nineteenth century from communities of several Pequot and Mohegan (Algonquian-speaking) tribes of southern New England and eastern Long Island, New York. In the 1780s after the American Revolutionary War, they migrated from New England into New York state, where they accepted land from the Iroquois Oneida Nation in Oneida County.

Under pressure from the United States government, the Brothertown Indians, together with the Stockbridge-Munsee and some Oneida, removed to Wisconsin in the 1830s, taking ships through the Great Lakes. In 1839 they were the first tribe of Native Americans in the United States to accept United States citizenship and have their communal land allocated to individual households, in order to prevent another removal further west. Most of the Oneida and many of the Delaware were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

The Bowman family is a special case among the Brotherton Reservation Indians ... Elizabeth Boman (i.e., Bowman) had 6 people in her house. (I think Elizabeth was Elizabeth Moore, Sophia's daughter.) By 1850, all these folks are gone from New Jersey and are living in Wisconsin with the Stockbridge-Munsee. Judging from the birth locations of Job Moore's children, they had moved there around 1843 or 1844. Elizabeth was born about 1814. I do not know who her husband, named Bowman, was. She had a son, Bartholomew Bowman, born about 1834. You can find all these folks in the federal censuses of Wisconsin, for 1850-1900, and beyond. sources: http://lenapetexts.com


The Stockbridge-Munsee members are descendants of tribes located in the Hudson River valley, New England and the mid-Atlantic areas, respectively, at the time of European encounter. The Stockbridge were Mahican from the upper Hudson area, who migrated into western Massachusetts in and near Stockbridge before the American Revolutionary War. They became Christianized Indians. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, they migrated west to central New York. They shared a 22,000-acre portion of the Oneida Reservation south of Syracuse.

The Munsee were Lenape located in the northern part of their total territory. As they spoke the Munsee dialect, one of the major three branches of the language, they were sometimes referred to by colonists and settlers by that term. They occupied coastal areas around present-day New York City, the western part of Long Island, and northern New Jersey. Lenape to the South spoke two other dialect variations.

Many Munsee-speaking Lenape had migrated from New Jersey to western Oneida County, New York by 1802 after the American Revolutionary War. They were joined by Brotherton Indians of New Jersey (from a reservation in Burlington County, New Jersey), as well as by the Stockbridge Mahican. Eventually the two groups agreed to removal together to present-day Wisconsin.

BOWMAN's who signed the Treaty of 1839 between the Munsees and New York:

Elizabeth Bowman
Mary Jane Bowman
Edward Bowman
FULL TREATY: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sto0742.htm

Possible alternative spellings of the Bowman family among the Mohican:

source: http://www.censusrecords.com/search?state=wisconsin&censusyear=1940,1900&county=calumet&race=unknown,native%20american


Bartholomew Bowman, born about 1834 is an interesting case as he represent a Bowman who begins his life among the Brotherton Lenape peoples of New Jersey. Then his family moves to Wisconsin and eventually we see them among the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohicans (see info above on Brotherton and Stockbridge-Munsee Mohican comnmunities). Mixing between these two communities was likely very common during this period considering their common origins, language and plight. His is the first Bowman line recorded joining the Mohican's in Wisconsin from another northeastern tribal group. However, other evidence does point to the Bowman family already existing in that community before his family joins them. More research will hopefully make this clearer.

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MARY JANE BRUSHEL was born on 10 May 1831 in Brothertown, Oneida Co., NY. She died in Richmond, Shawano Co., WI. She married EDWARD BOWMAN. He was born on 15 Feb 1835 in New Jersey. He died on 02 Apr 1890

1880 United States Federal Census
Name: Mary Bowman
Age: 48
Birth Year: abt 1832
Birthplace: Wisconsin
Home in 1880: Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin
Race: Indian (Native American)
Gender: Female
Spouse's Name: Edward Bowman
Father's Birthplace: New York
Mother's Birthplace: New York
Occupation: Keeps House
Edward Bowman 44
Mary Bowman 48
Samuel Bowman 23
Emmeline Bowman 16
John Bowman 13
Beaumont Bowman 10

Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin Family History Library Film 1255447
NA Film Number T9-1447
Page Number 404A

Edward BOWMAN Self M Male NA 44 WI Squatter NY NY
Mary BOWMAN Wife M Female NA 48 WI Keeps House NY NY
Samuel BOWMAN Son S Male NA 23 WI Laborer WI WI
Emmeline BOWMAN Dau S Female NA 16 WI At Home WI WI
John BOWMAN Son S Male NA 13 WI At Home WI WI
Beaumont BOWMAN Son S Male NA 10 WI At Home WI WI
1880 - Wisconsin - Calumet Co., Stockbridge
Bowman, Bartholmew Indian age 53 born New Jersey
Hannah Indian age 32 born WI Half-sister
Marian Mulatto age 12 born WI Nephew
Mary Jane Mulatto age 10 born WI Niece
Louis Mulatto age 8 born WI nephew
Orn Mulatto age 6 born WI Nephew
Bowman, Job Indian age 36 Brother

1880 United States Federal Census
about Samuel Bowman
Name: Samuel Bowman
Age: 23
Birth Year: abt 1857
Birthplace: Wisconsin
Home in 1880: Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin
Race: Indian (Native American)
Gender: Male
Relation to Head of House: Son
Marital Status: Single
Father's Name: Edward Bowman
Father's Birthplace: Wisconsin
Mother's Name: Mary Bowman
Mother's Birthplace: Wisconsin


Europeans reported encountering Shawnee over a widespread geographic area. The earliest mention of the Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch map showing the Sawwanew just east of the Delaware River. Later 17th-century Dutch sources also place them in this general location. Accounts by French explorers in the same century usually located the Shawnee along the Ohio River, where they encountered them on forays from Canada and the Illinois Country. The Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians descend from southeastern Kentucky's early multiracial settlers of 1790-1870. Their ancestors migrated to the central Appalachian region in the late 18th to mid 19th centuries.

HAWKINS BOWMAN (born app. 1790)

by Holly Fee-Timm
[originally published 3 June 1987
Harlan Daily Enterprise Penny Pincher]

"Many families in the mountains have traditions of being part Indian ... There are two local families with documentary evidence supporting their claims to Indian blood. These are the Cole and Bowman families. The Coles are listed in census records for 1860 Lee County, Va., and for 1870 Harlan as being Indian. The state and counties of birth given for the Cole family of 1860 implies they moved around frequently. The head of the household, John Cole, was born about 1799 in Lincoln Co., North Carolina. His daughter Eliza was born in Scott Co., Va., and daughter Elisabeth, in Knox Co., Ky. Eliza's two children, Jacob and Elmira were born in Lee Co., Va.

Next door to John's household is another Eliza Cole, born about 1834 in Lee Co., Va., with two daughters - Jane born in Claiborne Co., Tenn., and Elisabeth born in Lee Co., Va. All of these Coles and a Jefferson Cole living in the same neighborhood were listed as Indians. Elsewhere in Lee County was a John M. Cole, 20, also of Indian blood.

In 1870, the younger Eliza Cole, her two children mentioned above and three more children, Robert, Mary Jane and Mollie were listed in Harlan County. All were indicated as being Indian. It must be noted that the degree of Indian blood is not listed in census and even a small fraction could be cause for such a listing. The Coles were closely connected with another area family with proven Indian blood, the Bowmans. Hawkins Bowman was born about 1790 in North Carolina. In 1838, in Lee Co., Va., he married Nancy Barbour.

In 1879, his widow applied for a pension on his military service. She described him as being of dark complexion, commonly called part Indian and that he was about five-feet nine inches tall. In the 1870 Harlan, the family is listed as Indian."



The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory is a reserve of the traditionally Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk nation on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada, across from Montreal. Recorded by French Canadians in 1719 as a Jesuit mission, it has also been known as Seigneury Sault du St. Louis, Caughnawaga and 17 European spelling variations of the Mohawk Kahnawake.

In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the community was historically considered one of the Seven Nations of Canada which included the Abenaki.

Darren Bonnapart a Mohawk hostiorian suggests that the Bowman family at Kahnawake may have came after Roger's Raid hit the Abenaki Community of Odanak in 1759 as many Abenakis joined their community at that time.

CHIEF BEAUMAIN (apx. 1720)

Beaumain is a common variant spelling of Bowman.

"Living among the Abenaki at Odanak, Titus King found that in the "month of July the indians with who I lived told me that their victuals was all gone." ... Beaumain, a chief at Kahnawake, received seven metres of fine cloth and three metres of flannel "to clothe his family which he cannot do." Four Abenakis, then living at Kahnawake, received from the French an assortment of goods "to put them in a state to go to war." - The Canadian Iroquois and the Seven Years' War by D. Peter Macload, Canadian War Museum

DELIA BOWMAN (b. 1829)
(dit Bone, Bean, Benware, Benway, Benoit)

Birth: 1829
Quebec, Canada

Feb. 27, 1882
South Burlington
Chittenden County
Vermont, USA

Peter Phillips (1809 - 1906)
Saint Joseph Cemetery
Chittenden County
Vermont, USA

Burial Permit Record
(nee: Bone/Benway/Benware/Lefebvre)
wife of "Old" Pierre Peter Phillips
No. 1103
Age 47 years
February 27 1882
South Burlington, Vermont
Catholic Cemetery

Delia Bowman's daughter:

George Bowman (1854-?)
Possible relation of Joseph, Lewis, and Delia Bowman. (1) Abbe Jane Proper (Kahnawake/Mohawk) b. Abt. 1853, m (1) 7-Aug-1870, in Highgate, Franklin Co., VT, 16 George Bowman, m. http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DECKER/2001-07/0994882564

OTS-TOCH (apx. 1605)

1. Ots-Toch
2. Elizabeth Van Slyck
3. Cornelius VanBuren
4. Aaltje VanNess VanBuren
5. Hendrikje Fonda VanBuren
6. Douwe VanAntwerp
7. Winant Van Antwerp
8. Daniel Wynet Van Antwerp
9. Alice Van Antwerp
10 Jesse Bowman

Ots-Toch is the name commonly used for a Native American of the Mohawk Nation born in 1600 near Canajoharie who married Dutch settler Cornelise Antonnisen Van Slyke and founded the Van Slyke family in New Netherland. She was married sometime around 1620 and died in 1646.

Little is known of Ots-Toch, although she is indirectly referenced in many histories of early New York. For example, a daughter, Hillitie, chose to live with the Dutch, but served as an official Mohawk interpreter. Ots-Toch had at least three other children with Cornelise Van Slyke, and may have had more children by a Mohawk father.

Some variants of Ots-Toch's legend claim that her father was French, Jaques Hertel.

In local lore, Ots-Toch is often compared to Pocahontas, as the two share many similarities. Both converted to Christianity. Ots- Toch, who was married at the age of fifteen to Cornelisse Van Slyke.

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ots-Toch

BOWMAN Huron Ancestors

The Wyandot people or wendat, also called Huron, are indigenous peoples of North America. They traditionally spoke the Wyandot language, an Iroquoian language. By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandots settled in the area of the north shore of present-day Lake Ontario, before migrating to Georgian Bay. It was in that later location that they first encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615.

The modern Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups, the Wendat or Huron Confederacy and the Tionontate, called the Petun (tobacco people) by the French because of their cultivation of the crop. They were located in the southern part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois, the Haudenosaunee, then based in New York.

Today the Wyandot have a First Nations reserve in Quebec, Canada. They also have three major settlements in the United States, two of which have independently governed, federally recognized tribes.[1] Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages.

ATSENA (apx. 1600) The Huron Chief of the Bear Nation.

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon - HURON
2. Catherine 8enta Plat (Pillard) - HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Tom, Frank, Lucy & Delia Bowman


The Abenaki (Abnaki, Aln8bak) are a Native American tribe and a First Nations band government. They are one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America. The Abenaki live in Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada and in the New England region of the United States, a region called Wabanahkik ("Dawn Land") in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy. "Abenaki" is a linguistic and geographic grouping; historically there was not a strong central authority, but as listed below a large number of smaller bands and tribes who shared many cultural traits, and who came together as a post-contact community after their original tribes were decimated by colonization, warfare and disease.

MARIE MITE8AMEG8K8E (apx. 1631)

1. Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (apx. 1631) Algonquin Indian
2. Madeleine Couc dit LeFabvre married (apx. 1692) Michillimakinac
3. Marguerite Menard (b. 1706) Boucherville
4. Rene Boileau (b. 1732) Champlys
5. Louise Boileau (b. Feb. 7, 1764) Chamblys
6. Marie Monty (b. 1796) St-Mathias-sur-Richelieu
7. Amelia Guyette (b. 1843)
8. William Bowman (b. 1868) Rutland, VT

1. Charles Beaumain (apx. 1750) Becancour
2. Alex Beaumain (apx. 1800) St-Pierre Becquets, wife Charlotte Tousignant
3. Lewis Bowman (b. 1838) Saratoga County, NY
4. William Bowman (b. 1868) Rutland, VT


Eve Jacobs-Carnahan, Special Assistant Attorney General
December 2002
Second Printing, January 2003

Unredacted Document Pertaining to Exhibit 9 (Page 4)
A#1. Delia Bone dit Bowman

This individual goes by a great variety of names. The vital statistics of her children record her name in the following ways:--

Rosella Bonne, Caroline Bone, Delina Bonno, Lemas Beam, Delina Bones (or Boner), Delina Benware, Rose Dellabaum, Delia Bowman, Delorne Bon.

Cora Stark Phillips, III #15, says that Lemas Bone was part Indian and part French. She came from an Indian Reservation Caughnewaga, sixteen miles from Montreal. The same informant says that Lemas Bone dit Bowman had a sister living at that reservation. She also has half/brothers, Tom and Frank Benway dit Bowman, living in Burlington on Winooski Road. Matilda Leopard Phillips (Young Matilda) said that Delia Bone Phillips has a sister, Lucy Bone Pecor, wife of Louis Pecor, a Civil War veteran. "Aunt Lucy" and her husband lived in Charlestown, N.H. Louis Pecor has a Government Pension. Lucy was really a half-sister of Lemas. Delia Bone was the first wife of Peter Phillips the first.

At some time Peter and Delia must have been living in Canada as their daughter Selina was born there. Somewhere about 1847 they were living in Highgate Falls, Vt. In 1865 they were living in Rutland. Some time between 1878 and 1885 they were living in Quechee, Vt.

According to the marriage record of her daughter Louise, Delia Bone was born in Quebec, Canada.

Delia Bone is buried in St. Joseph's Cemetery, Burlington. We have not verified her death.

From the Missisquoi Abenaki Petition for Federal Recognition:
Page 343: Also in 1910, in Highgate, Joseph Bowman and Brisbois family appear in the records of Missisquoi. 1519. These two families hail from central Vermont and the Lake George community. Their presence suggests that migration back and forth to that area as well as Odanak was still occurring in 1910. In fact, oral tradition from the Bowman Joseph Bruchac family and the Maurice Denis Adirondack Abenaki family has confirmed the existence of the Vermont Abenaki community in the 20th century. 1520. Footnote 1519. See Household # 232 in 1910 Highgate, Vermont Census in Appendix 11. Footnote 1520. 2282, 8/5/83: 2283, 8/5/83: 1-4.

Brisbois is a common Odanak/Saint Francis Abenaki family. It is usually spelled Plispwa in Abenaki.

Brisbois, Blispwa or Plispwa
Wood - U.S.
Earliest Occurrences of the Name
1757 Michel Dubois is recorded as 'Sauvage' in parish registers
Francois Brisebois appears on the Odanak roster of 1812 veterans with heirs in 1844
Francois Brisebois [Jr], changed his name to Frank Wood and moved to the US.
Places Family is Found
Odanak - 1812 to 20th Century
NY State

The family names appears in St. Francois church records from the early 1700s. However, the only documented Native connections we have are the two Francois' that m. Abenaki women and Michel Dubois 'Sauvage' that married at St. Francois in 1757. The elder Francois died about 1823. His son, Francois Xavier, was living with the younger Charles Chouaganne in 1841 and in 1844 he is listed as absent 2 years. He m. 1844 Anastasie Obomsawine. She died between 1857 & 1861. Francois Xavier appears to be the man that m. Marie Eulalie Phaneuf at Coopersville NY in 1859 and started a 2nd family using the surnames Dubois & Wood. The children of his 1st marriage are living with relatives at Odanak in 1861.

LEWIS BOWMAN (apx. 1842)

Lewis Bowman is the son of Joseph Bowman, or Charles Bowman, and Sophia Raspberry dit Laframboise dit Senical. Wife Alice Van Antwerp. Lewis migrated to the US in 1860 from Canada. In the US he is recorded living near the Winooski River, in Richmond County in 1859, then in Saint Albans, VT in 1860 and 1861. He planted his roots in Greenfield Center, NY. He's listed as "a chopper" in 1890 and as "a farmer" in the "1900" New York state censuses. According to family oral tradition of Jesse Bowman his great grandfather was in the Revolutionary War and grandfather died on the Kennebec river in Maine. There is a potential familial link between him and Delia Bowman, born 1829 at Kahnawake (see info above). Perhaps siblings or cousins.

Recorded places of residence:
(1) Lewis was born in East Farnham, Brome-Missisquoi County, Quebec, Canada.
(2) 1859-Lewis Bowman was resident in Richmond, Chittenden County, Vermont.
(3) 1860-1862 Lewis Bowman resided in St. Albans, Franklin County, Vermont.
(4) August 29, 1864 Lewis Bowman enlisted into the Civil War from Troy, Rensselaer County, New York.

Pension Claim Excerpt: January 25, 1882 State of New York, County of Saratoga:

"In the matter of the original invalid pension claim No. 88821 of Lewis Bowman of Co. E., 69th Regt N.Y. State Volunteers, Lewis Bowman, age 37 years and a resident of Porters Corners in the County of Saratoga County, New York, stated that for 5 years immediately preceding his enlistment into the service of the United States on the 29th day of August, 1864, that he had resided in the following places:

-Richmond, Vermont in 1859
-In 1860 & 1862 at St. Albans, Vermont
-At Albany, NY in 1862 and at time of enlistment at Troy, N.Y.

His occupation was that of a Laborer. Since his discharge from the service on the 14th day of August 1865, he has been residing in Cohose, Albany County, New York for about two [2] years."

Bowman Oral History
From Jack and Katherine Bowman

"Great grandpa Louie was in the great war he and their baby died within days of each other. Lights were seen flying through the air. A premonition.

John Bowman wife Edith
Howard Bowman wife Charlotte
Lillian - born under a maple tree
Louis wife Mary (no kids)
Forrest - blown up (Forrest's mother Anna said a hand appeared in the window)
Berlin - grandpa ran away to visit him

The flu in 1919 - family kept away from each other
Aunt Della - a cousin in Bakers Mills, North Creek
Gray family was related and the Sawyers."

Lewis Bowman's physical description from Civil War Records:

Age: 20 years
Born: Canada
Occupation: Laborer
Eyes: Black
Hair: Black
Complexion: Dark
Height: 5 ft., 8 1/2 inches

Father listed as Joe Bowman mother as Sophia Raspberry.

BOWMAN and VAN ANTWERP Family in 1890 and 1900 Census records:

JESSE BOWMAN Born August, 1886 Greenfield Center, NY. Son of Lewis Bowman and Alice Van Antwerp.

Marion Dunham Bowman and Jesse Bowman in Greenfield Center, NY home.

Joseph Bruchac and Carol Worthen wedding. Jesse Bowman on far right.

MARION BOWMAN (January 14, 1921) Daughter of Jesse Bowman. Greenfield Center, NY.

Marion Bowman Bruchac visiting with Julliette M. Sadoques at the Abenaki reservation of Odanak/Saint Francis, Quebec. 1988. Photo by Mary Ann Bruchac Lynch

JOSEPH BRUCHAC (October 16, 1942) Son of Marion Bowman. Greenfield Center, NY.

Joseph Bruchac with his grandfather Jesse Bowman who raised him.

Jesse Bowman with grandson James Edward Bruchac.