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BOWMAN INDIANS ON THE RECORD
An ongoing research project by Jesse Bowman Bruchac

Latest Update September 10, 2015


INTRODUCTION

     The Bowman name has long been connected to Native families in the northeast, as the documentation below clearly illustrates. The exact reason this English family name quickly became so prominent among northeast Native families is unknown. In some cases, the name came through intermarriage, in others it appears to have been given, or chosen. It also may have been an Anglicization of a similar Native word. The mysterious origin of my own family's Bowman line has led some of us down incredible and varied paths of discovery, paths whose final endings have yet to appear on the horizon. However, with our continued research, things are always coming into better focus as new pieces of the puzzle are uncovered. The value of the information presented goes beyond my family and should be useful to others doing similar research on their families, or into the rich history of the northeast in general.

     In the collection of documents that follow I am not suggesting these people are all related. While some very clearly are, there's insignificant data to link all the Bowman family branches together and they likely have divergent origins. I've done my best not to include any opinions but to just provide the facts as they unfold in documents. I further realize that when I do offer potential theories, others may see things in a different way. Definitive answers in the field of genealogy are often illusive, especially so in the arena of northeastern Native communities. An experienced genealogist knows its more an art than a science, but, when done right, genealogy employs solid scientific methods. Eventually though, we are left to make some assumptions based on the facts at hand and as new documents are found these assumptions will inevitably be modified.

     The fact that so many documents concering Native Bowman families can be found and the early date of their appearance is particularly intriguing. I can only imagine all that has not been recorded, has been lost, or has yet to be discovered! Looking at the records I have compiled thus far, we see the Bowman name spreading across the northeast and then into the midwest in step with the displacement of northeastern Native peoples due to war, disease and removal over the last three centuries. Equally interesting is the way it follows the migration and amalgamation of Eastern Algonquian languages during this period. Although far from complete, the compilation of these documents should be useful to many. In addition, it may help to better illuminate at least a small part of the deep network of interrelation between Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Lenape, Mohican, Abenaki, Mohawk, and many other communities.

     Finally, keep in my this is an ongoing project that will continue to grow as more information is discovered. Every effort has been made to present sources, along with the original historic documents. If you can provide useful additional information, don't hesitate to share so that it can included. - wliwni (thank you) Jesse

Bowman family name meaning from English and Scottish: occupational name for an archer, Middle English bow(e)man, bouman (from Old English boga 'bow' + mann 'man'). Americanized form of German Baumann is also Bowman but means "bottom of the valley farmer." The Middle Dutch cognate of Bowman is Bouman a status name for a peasant or land worker or a nickname meaning 'neighbor.' The Jewish cognate Bowman, Bauman or Bauer mean 'builder' or 'carpenter.' Common variants include Boman, Bouman, Baumann, Beauman, Beaumain, Bauer and Beaumont. Related variants include Bowen, Bohen, Bohew, Bone, Bean, Benware, Benway, Benoit, Bowe, & Bulman. Rare forms and misspellings Bamman, Beman, Bensman, Boarman, Bodman, Bomin, Bordman, Boreman, Borvman, Broman, & Bunerght.



BOWMAN among the WAMPANOAG

The Wampanoag Language also known as Massachusett, Pokanoket or Natick is an Algonkian language of New England. The language is no longer actively spoken in Wampanoag communities today, although some Wampanoag people are trying to revive it. Narragansett is considered by some linguists to have been a Wampanoag dialect, by others a distinct language.

The Wampanoag people also called Massasoit, or W8panaak, are a Native American tribe. Many Wampanoag people today are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) of Massachusetts, or four state-recognized tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In the beginning of the 17th century, at the time of first contact with the English, the Wampanoag lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, as well as within a territory that encompassed current day Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Their population numbered in the thousands due to the richness of the environment and their cultivation of corn, beans and squash. Three thousand Wampanoag lived on Martha's Vineyard alone. From 1615 to 1619 the Wampanoag suffered an epidemic, long suspected to be smallpox, but recent research alternatively theorizes that it was leptospirosis, a bacterial infection also known as Weil's syndrome or 7-day fever. It caused a high fatality rate and nearly destroyed the society. Researchers suggest that the losses from the epidemic were so large that English colonists were more easily able to found their settlements in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in later years. More than 50 years later, King Philip's War (1675-1676) against the English colonists resulted in the deaths of 40 percent of the tribe. Most of the male survivors were sold into slavery in the West Indies. Many women and children were enslaved in New England. While the tribe largely disappeared from historical records from the late 18th century, its people persisted. Survivors remained in their traditional areas and continued many aspects of their culture, while absorbing other people by marriage and adapting to changing economic and cultural needs in the larger society. Although the last native speakers of W8panaak died more than 100 years ago, since 1993 Wampanoag people have been working on a language revival project that is producing new native speakers. The project is also working on curriculum and teacher development.

WILLIAM BOWMAN (app. 1620-?)
William is the first documented Native Bowman.

William Bowman in 1656 was of Natick but prior to that year resided on land that eventually became part of Framingham. "Natick was first settled in 1651 by John Eliot, a Puritan missionary born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England who received a commission and funds from England's Long Parliament to settle the Massachusett Indians on both sides of the Charles River, on land deeded from the settlement at Dedham. They were called Praying Indians Natick was the first and for a long time served as the center of Eliot's network of praying towns. While the town's were largely self-governing under Indian leaders, the praying Indians were subject to rules governing conformity to English Puritan culture (in practice Natick, like the other praying towns, evidenced a combination of traditional and English culture and practices). Eliot and Praying Indian translators printed America's first written Bible in the Algonquian language. The colonial government placed such settlements in a ring of villages around Boston as a defensive strategy. Natick was the first and best documented of such settlements. The land was granted by the General Court, part of the Dedham Grant."

Deed of John Stone
This witnesseth that William Boman, Capt. Josiah, Roger, & James, and Keaquisan, Indians, now living at Natick the Indian Plantation near Sudbury in the Massachusetts Bay in New England, for and in consideration of a valuable sum of Peage and other goods to us in hand paid by John Stone of Sudbury aforenamed to our full content & satisfaction, before the signing and delivery hereof have given, granted, bargained & sould, assigned, enfeoffed & confirmed, and by theis presents do give, grant, bargain & sell, assign, enfeoffe and confirm unto the said J. Stone, his Heyres & assignes, a parcell of Broaken-up and fenced in land, lying on the South side of Sudbury line, upon the Falls of Sudbury River, and bounded with the Common land surrounding. The said land containing by estimation about ten Acres more or less. To have & to hould the said land with the fences and all other the privileges and Appurtenances thereof be the same more or less, to him the said J. Stone, his Heyres and Assignes forever, to his and their only propper use & behooffe. In witness whereof wee the above named Indians have hereunto put our hands & scales this 15th day of May 1656.

2 97 2003.066.8.20 Deed of William Boman [et al., Indians] to John Stone for bland at the falls of the Sudbury River, in consideration of a valuable sum of peage and other goods : photocopy and typed transcription / original March 15, 1656. LINCOLN PUBLIC LIBRARY Bedford Road, Lincoln, Massachusetts ARCHIVES/ SPECIAL COLLECTIONS Stone Family Papers 2003.066

Indian William's meadow, was the name of about three acres of land, near the falls of Cochituate brook, and was granted to Rev. Edmund Brown. It was originally owned by William Boman.

Roger's Field was also at Saxonville, and took in the large tract bounded east by a line from the Falls along by Stone's hall to the turn in the river, north by the river, south by the river and Boman's brook, west by a ditch running from the brook to the river. Deeds of the property have been lately found.

Assuming that Boman and Roger were original proprietors, it is fitting that their names should be commemorated in the plain and brook which still mark the location of their ancient inheritance.

"Indian William's meadow," which lay near the old cotton-factory dam, was probably named for William Boman. Very likely he had his fishing-weir at this point in the brook. The laying out of this meadow to Rev. Edmund Browne of Sudbury, is thus recorded : "Item, one smale parcell of three acres, formerly called Indian William's meadow, lying towards the falls of Chochittuat river."

'Indian History of the Plantation', Boman and Roger have already been noticed as grantors of land near the Falls, and as commemorated in the names of Bowman's Brook and Roger's Field.  Other Indian names of hills, ponds and streams, (and those in some instances corrupted), are meager, yet pleasant memorials transmitted to us, of the aboriginal race (Indian arrow-heads have been frequently found in ploughed fields in this town.  Bowman's Brook may be named after the Bowman Indian family who married into the Natick Wiser Indian family. - A History of Framingham, Massachusetts, Including the Plantation, from 1640 to the Present Time by William Barry, Boston: James Munroe and Company, 1847, p.18

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JOHN BOWMAN

ID: I4250
Name: John BOMAN/BOWMAN
Given Name: John
Surname: Boman
Sex: M
Birth: Before 1685 in Natick Indian, Sudbury, Middlesex, MA
Death: Y
TAG4:
Reference Number: MISC.
Change Date: 6 Sep 2001 at 19:17
Note: NAT: Natick Indian

"JEHOJAKIM, John MAGUS, John MUSKQUA and his 2 daughters. Esther and Rachel, Benjamin BOHUE, John SPEEN and SARAH his wife, James SPEEN, Dorothy WENNETOO and Humphry BOHUE her son, Mary NEPPAMUN, Abagail the daughter of Josiah HARDING, Peter JETHRO, Peter MUSKQUAMOGH, John BOMAN, David MUNNOAH and Betty, signed deed." "Wee saw Benjamin BOHEN, Dorothy WAUNETO, and Mary and Betty NEPANUM sign." also "CHARLS JOSIAS, Sachem of Mass." also "William STOUGHTON, Joseph DUDELY, Robert V. MONTAGUE, William W. AHANTON. Wit: Andrew PITTAMEE, James RUMNEY, Samuel GOFF, James BARNARD, Daniel SACONAMBATT." - Registry of Deeds at East Cambridge, 11 JULY 1684: book IX p.344-352

Mary NEPPAMUN and Wee saw Benjamin BOHEN (also spelled BOHEW) could be potentially related forms of the Bowman name. However, further examples and research is needed to come to any substantial conclusion.



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The above deed was not received until years after the grant was made by the Court, and the lands divided up and apportioned to the inhabitants. The records do not state what occasioned the long delay, but, as was the case elsewhere, perhaps the papers were not passed until, in process of time, the settlers questioned whether the claim to the territory was valid until purchased of the Indian proprietors. A similar instance occurred at Groton, where the deed came long after the lands were occupied. The grant was allowed by the Court as early as 1655, but no title was obtained from the natives till about 1683 or 1684.

From lands thus allowed, the Plantation of Sudbury was formed. It required, however, more than the allowance and laying out of the land and the settlement of it to make it a town. A separate act of incorporation was necessary to complete the work. This was done September 4, 1639, when the Court ordered that "the newe Plantation by Concord shall be called Sudbury." - Colony Records, Vol. I., p. 271

Peter Jethro, Indian, appeared before me the fifth day of February 1684 & freely acknowledged this writing within to be his act & deed & ythe put his hand & seale thereunto. Daniel Gookin Sen. Affift

John Boman did sign seale & deliver the within written deed the 23rd of February in the year our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty & four in presence of us

John Balcom -^- Samuel Freeman his marke.

James Speen & John Bowman appeared before me in court at Natick & acknowledged they have signed & sealed this instrument among others May 13th, 1684. James Gookin Sen. Affist
Roxbury April, 1685.

James Speen and John Bowman appeared before me in court at Natick "acknowledged they have signed" sealed this instrument among others May 13th, 1684.
- APA: Hudson, Alfred Sereno. (2013). pp. 68-9. The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts. London: Forgotten Books. (Original work published 1889)
- MLA: Hudson, Alfred Sereno. The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts. 1889. Reprint. London: Forgotten Books, 2013. 68-9. Print.


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SAMUEL BOWMAN

Samuel Bowman was born about 1690, probably in Natick and died about 1747 in Worcester, MA. He made his way to the Nipmuc homeland of Pakachoag Hill, in what was now the English town of Worcester, shortly after he was named a Natick proprietor in 1719. In an affidavit filed after he died in 1749, at the age of roughly fifty, his heirs stated that their deceased father lived in Worcester and places adjacent for more than twenty years before his death. Samuel was likely a great-grandson of William Bowman.

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"Awaasamug, Bowman, Ephraim, Peegun, Rumneymarsh, Speen, Tray, and Waban. The surnames BOWMAN and Tray could be English. I counted towns with these surnames only if the record included the notation "Indian" or "Colored." ... This list could be greatly expanded if other Natick names with strong connection were included. This figure is presented to provide a sense and conservative estimate of the complex network of Indian places into which Natick Indians were connected."

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Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, By Jean M. O'Brie


Children of Samuel Bowman:

1. Martha BOWMAN who married Joseph Pegan. From the same article, page 57: 'Daughter Martha had married Joseph Pegan, a Nipmuc Indian who owned real estate in Dudley, the English town that included Chaubunagungamaug reservation lands. They lived 'in English fashion' and were eager to receive their portion of the estate [of Samuel, her father] in order to make material improvements to their property.'

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- Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, By Jean M. O'Brie 2. Ruth BOWMAN Married James Wiser. Ruth and James son Benjamin was born about 1743. When Samuel Bowman's estate was probated in 1749, Benjamin was residing with his aunt and uncle, Betty and Zachariah Equi in Sturbridge, MA. Benjamin Wiser would marry Abigial Thomas, June 25, 1767 in Sturbridge. No other children are known for Ruth and James Wiser.

3. Betty BOWMAN who married Zachariah Equi. From Holly Izard's article, page 57: Daughter Betty Equi and husband Zachariah were 'dwellers on land belonging to others' in the southern Worcester County town of Sturbridge, probably living on what was the Nipmuc homeland of Tantiusque.' No children known.

4. Lydia BOWMAN. After the death of her father in 1749, it appears she lived with her mother in Worcester, MA. At this time, she was a young woman. From the same article, page 57: 'When she reached adulthood Lydia Bowman had a relationship with, and possibly married, a man whose surname was Crosman; their only child, Hepsibeth, was born March 25, 1761. Hannah Hemenway [this is Hepsibeth's daughter] variously told reporters that Hepsibeth was an 'Indian maiden' and that she was 'half Indian and half white.' Hepsibeth's mother was of Nipmuc ancestry and her father may have been partially Indian, possibly the son of Mashpee Indian Dorkus Wicket and a white man named Samuel Croshman recorded in Rhode Island records. Hannah said her father died in the Revolution. His service cannot be confirmed in military records for Massachusetts, though he may have served from another colony. The lack of information on Hepsibeth's father in public records, and the fact that local residents consistently attributed the Bowman surname to her even though she used Crosman, suggests her father was not of Worcester. Hepsibeth would have been fourteen when her father went off to war and probably in her late teens when he died. Drawing on the general experience of Native Americans at the time, she and her widowed mother Lydia probably supported themselves by gathering wild edibles, cultivating a small patch of ground, hiring their labor to white families, exchanging items they produced for needed supplies, and relying on the good will of others.' Her only known child, Hepsibeth BOWMAN Hemenway died February 17, 1848, when she was eighty-six years old.

HEPSIBETH BOWMAN

File written by Adobe Photoshop¨ 5.0

Hepsibeth Bowman's photo is published here with the permission of the Worcester Historical Society Worcester, Massachusetts They are in possession of the original portrait Painted in 1840, Hepsibeth being in her 70s. Her portrait has been on display at the Worcester Historical Museum in Worcester, Massachusetts. Hepsibeth BOWMAN's portrait is one of only six actual known portraits of New England Indians. There is an article about her portrait in the 'Old-Time New England Magazine', Fall/Winter 1999 issue, pages 49 through 85, by Holly V. Izard.

Hepsibeth was a descendant of Samuel Bowman, who was one of the proprietors of the town of Natick. This town was an attempt by Plymouth Colony in 1650 to Christianize Indians into being more like their English neighbors. There were several of these villages in Massachusetts and Connecticut, but Natick was the first.

Shortly after the King Phillip war the Bowmans returned to their original homeland of Worcester, which was due partly to racial strife with surrounding towns.

Hepsibeth is referred to in early newspaper articles as an Indian maiden from Packachoag Hill. She was half white, on her father's side. It was illegal for Indians to marry white people in Massachusetts and Hepsibeth is recorded on early town documents as Hepsibeth Bowman, daughter of Lydia Bowman.



source: Dawnland Voices: An Anthology of Indigenous Writing from New England edited by Siobhan Senier

5. Samuel BOWMAN Jr.

Samuel BOWMAN Jr. is likely the gg-grandson of William BOWMAN

From page 57: 'Son Samuel Bowman Jr. attested that he had learned the 'English manner' of husbandry through years of hiring his laborer to farmers, but because he did not have the money to purchase property of his own he decided to return to Natick to live on Indian common lands.' Wife or children not known.



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BOWMAN among the NIPMUC

The historical tribe with which the Nipmuc Nation group asserts continuity was the Hassanamisco Nipmuc of southeastern Worcester County, Massachusetts. The Hassanamisco reservation was sold in 1727, except for 500 acreswhich was divided in 1727 to 1730 among seven Hassanamisco proprietary families who were each given individual ownership. The land was not the common property of a tribal entity and the State did not hold title to the reserved Hassanamisco property. There was no common fund but each property-owning family got a share in the funds received from the sale of the land.

The historical Hassanamisco Indians were affected by the Massachusetts Enfranchisement Act of 1869, an act which "detribalized" the historical Hassanamisco Indians and temporarily ended the State's relationship with them.

At the time of the petition, the Nipmuc Nation group had 526 members. The Federal government rejected the Nipmuc Nation's argument that it has had continuous State recognition with a reservation. The Sisco family, one of the families in the petition, retains ownership of 2.5 acres (10,000 m2) of the land originally reserved for the historical Hassanamisco Indians. This is the land in the Town of Grafton that is known as the "Hassanamisco Reservation."

The family of John Bowman and Samuel Bowman listed above in Natick began among the Nipmuck. Their Father William Bowman was one of ten Indians who signed a deed of sale to the "Nipmug country" to English settlers at Framingham before moving to Natick. Josiah Temple explained in his History of Framingham, 'Our Indians were known by the general name of Nipnets, or Nipmucks, and the region hereabouts was for a long period called in deeds and official records, 'the Nipmug Country.'' He added that the Indians who formed communities in the area had moved there from Hassanamesit [now near Grafton, MA] and other older Nipmuc settlements. William Bowman was one of ten Indians who signed a deed of sale to English settlers at Framingham under the guidance of Daniel Gookin in 1656. - Old-Time New England Magazine, Fall/Winter 1999 issue, pages 49 through 85, by Holly V. Izard: Page 56

Deed to John Stone
Deed for a 10 acre parcel in the Saxonville section of Framingham near the Sudbury River Falls. The sellers were five Nipmuc Indians then living at the Indian Plantation of Natick. The deed is signed with their marks by William Boman (Bowman), Capt. Josiah, Roger, Keaquisam, and James. The purchase price included a "valluable sume of Peage and other goodes". The deed was witnessed by Daniel Gookin, Supt. of Indian Affairs for the Colony of Massachusett. - History of Framingham, Massachusetts, early known as Danforth's Farms, 1640-1880

From the Nipmuck Nation Application for Federal Recognition:




BOWMAN in the 1849 Massachusetts 'Indian Censuses' BRIGGS REPORT
This report was prepared by F. W. Bird, Whiting Griswold & Cyrus Weekes and was submitted to George N. Briggs, Governor of Massachusetts in 1849. The background on Briggs and this document is discussed here in a separate writing. What's reproduced here is an "as is" listing of Indian families and individuals.

JOSEPH E. BOWMAN Joseph Bowman (of Dudley) listed on the 1849 Briggs report may be a ggg, or gggg-grandson of William Bowman.

 

1849, Briggs Report

46

Belden, Bowman, Daly, Freeman, Hall, Humphrey, Jaha, Kile (Kyle), Newton, Nichols, Pichens (Pegan), Robins, Shelby, Sprague and Willard.



BOWMAN INDIANS in the Massachusetts Archives Collection

Bowman, Samuel Jun.20, 1743 a committee authorized to sell land purchased from Samuel Bowman of Worcester in behalf of Moses and Joshua Waban Vol.31 : Page 444 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Bowman, Samuel Mar.21, 1749/1750 a petition of the heirs of Samuel Bowman of Worcester for the sale of certain property in Natick and that the proceeds of the said sale be applied for their benefit Vol.32 : Pages 6-7 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Betty Mar.21, 1749/1750 Betty Equi and other Indians are listed as heirs of Samuel Bowman; a petition that they may sell certain Natick lands belonging to the said Samuel and the proceeds to be expended for the benefit of the heirs; the said Betty living in Sturbridge desires her portion to be invested for her Vol.32 : Page 607 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Zachariah Mar.21, 1749/1750 Zachariah Equi and others are listed as heirs of Samuel Bowman; a petition of them for the sale of certain lands in Natick and the proceeds to be divided up amongst the said heirs; Zachariah living in Sturbridge desires the money to be invested for him Vol.32 : Pages 6-7 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Bowman, Martha Mar.21, 1749/1750 a petition of Martha Bowman and other heirs of Samuel Bowman of Worcester for the sale of certain land in Natick; the proceeds of the said sale are to be applied for their benefit Vol.32 : Pages 6-7 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Zachariah Dec.8, 1752 Zachariah Equi is a Sturbridge Indian; he is a client of John Curtis; he is included in a petition for the sale of Natick land Vol.32 : Pages 316-318 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Equi, Betty Dec.8, 1752 Betty Equi is a Sturbridge Indian; she is the wife of Zachariah Equi and the daughter of Martha Boman of Worcester; she is included in a petition for a sale of Natick land Vol.32 : Pages 316-318 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Boman, Samuel Dec.8, 1752 Samuel Boman is a Worcester Indian; he is a son of Martha Boman; John Curtis petitions to sell Natick land for him and other Indians Vol.32 : Pages 316-318 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Boman, Martha Apr. 1760 Martha Bowman is named as one of those for whom Ephraim Curtis is truste Vol.33 : Page 128 Massachusetts Archives Collection

Boman, Samuel Apr. 1760 Samuel Bowman, a son of Martha Bowman, is named as one of those for whom Ephraim Curtis is trustee Vol.33 : Page 128 Massachusetts Archives Collection

BOWMAN among the BROTHERTON INDIANS

Bowman family name appears in documents dating from 1758->
The Brothertown Indians (also Brotherton), located in Wisconsin, are a Native American tribe formed in the early nineteenth century from communities of several Pequot and Mohegan (Algonquian-speaking) tribes of southern New England and eastern Long Island, New York. In the 1780s after the American Revolutionary War, they migrated from New England into New York state, where they accepted land from the Iroquois Oneida Nation in Oneida County.

Under pressure from the United States government, the Brothertown Indians, together with the Stockbridge-Munsee and some Oneida, removed to Wisconsin in the 1830s, taking ships through the Great Lakes. In 1839 they were the first tribe of Native Americans in the United States to accept United States citizenship and have their communal land allocated to individual households, in order to prevent another removal further west. Most of the Oneida and many of the Delaware were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).


Lester Skeesuk (Brothertown Indian), ca. 1920

Isaac Still (sometimes written, Stille or Stelle), Moses Tunda Tatamy and John Pumpshire were among those chosen to negotiate for this Reservation. Teedyuscung and George Hopayock signed the original land transfer, as Delaware tribal officials.

Ashatama
Bowman
Breant
Calvin
Claus (probably the same as Nicholuss)
Conchee
Cousher
Cuish
Daniell
Evans
George
Gosling
Johnston/Johnson
Joshua
Kekalah
Kekott
Lemons
Loques (same family as Peepy)
Lowlax
Mitop
Moore
Mullis
News
Nicholuss (probably the same as Claus)
Peepy (same family as Loques)
Pombolus
Quaquay
Quela
Sampson/Samson
Skekit/Skicket
Skeesuk
Stille
Store
Swauela/Swanneluh
Tallman
Thomas [maybe-needs more research]
Thompson/Tomson
West
Wheelwright
Williams
Woolley

The Bowman family is a special case among the Brotherton Reservation Indians. So far as I can tell, nobody named Bowman lived on the Reservation before it was sold, in 1802. HOWEVER, the family of Job Moore and his wife, Sophia Calvin (b.1784), daughter of Bartholomew Calvin (Shawuskhkung - "Wilted Grass"), remained there long after the sale. I've been trying to determine just how many Brotherton Lenape remained in New Jersey after most of them left, in 1802. Checking the 1830 and 1840 federal censuses for Evesham Township (wherein the reservation lied), there seems to have been just two families. In 1830, the family of Sophia Moore (widow of the last Brotherton headman, Job Moore), had 10 people in the household. In 1840, this household had split into three households, all living next door to one another. Sophia Moore's family now had 4 people in the house; Job Moore's family had 4 people in his house (this is Job Moore, Jr.); and, Elizabeth Boman (i.e., Bowman) had 6 people in her house. (I think Elizabeth was Elizabeth Moore, Sophia's daughter.) By 1850, all these folks are gone from New Jersey and are living in Wisconsin with the Stockbridge-Munsee. Judging from the birth locations of Job Moore's children, they had moved there around 1843 or 1844. Elizabeth was born about 1814. I do not know who her husband, named Bowman, was. She had a son, Bartholomew Bowman, born about 1834. You can find all these folks in the federal censuses of Wisconsin, for 1850-1900, and beyond. sources: http://lenapetexts.com

BOWMAN among the MOHICAN

The Stockbridge-Munsee members are descendants of tribes located in the Hudson River valley, New England and the mid-Atlantic areas, respectively, at the time of European encounter. The Stockbridge were Mahican from the upper Hudson area, who migrated into western Massachusetts in and near Stockbridge before the American Revolutionary War. They became Christianized Indians. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, they migrated west to central New York. They shared a 22,000-acre portion of the Oneida Reservation south of Syracuse.

The Munsee were Lenape located in the northern part of their total territory. As they spoke the Munsee dialect, one of the major three branches of the language, they were sometimes referred to by colonists and settlers by that term. They occupied coastal areas around present-day New York City, the western part of Long Island, and northern New Jersey. Lenape to the South spoke two other dialect variations.

Many Munsee-speaking Lenape had migrated from New Jersey to western Oneida County, New York by 1802 after the American Revolutionary War. They were joined by Brotherton Indians of New Jersey (from a reservation in Burlington County, New Jersey), as well as by the Stockbridge Mahican. Eventually the two groups agreed to removal together to present-day Wisconsin.

Treaty/Names-Census of the Munsees of New York, included in the treaty of September 3, 1839

"Whereas by Senate amendment to the treaty with the Menomonees of February [twenty] eighth, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, two townships of land on the east side of Winnebago Lake, Territory of Wisconsin, were set aside for the use of the Stockbridge and Munsee tribes of Indians, all formerly of the State of New York, but a part of whom had already removed to Wisconsin; and Whereas said Indianstook possession of said lands, but dissensions existing among them led to the treaty of September third, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, by which the east half of said two townships was retroceded to the United States, and in conformity to which a part of said Stockbridges and Munsees emigrated west of the Mississippi; and Whereas to relieve them from dissensions still existing by "An act for the relief of the Stockbridge tribe of Indians in the Territory of Wisconsin," approved March third, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, it was provided, that the remaining townships of land should be divided into lots and allotted between the individual members of said tribe; and Whereas a part of said tribe refused to be governed by the provisions of said act, and a subsequent act was passed on the sixth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, repealing the aforementioned act, but without making provision for bona fide purchasers of lots in the townships subdivided in conformity to the said first-named act; and Whereas it was found impracticable to carry into effect the provisions of the last-mentioned act, and to remedy all difficulties, a treaty was entered into on the twenty-fourth of November, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, wherein among other provisions, the tribe obligated itself to remove to the country west of the Mississippi set apart for them by the amendment to said treaty; and Whereas dissensions have yet been constantly existing amongst them, and many of the tribe refused to remove, when they were offered a location in Minnesota, and applied for a retrocession to them of the township of Stockbridge, which has been refused by the United States; and Whereas a majority of the said tribe of Stockbridges and the Munsees are averse to removing to Minnesota and prefer a new location in Wisconsin, and are desirous soon to remove and to resume agricultural pursuits, and gradually to prepare for citizenship, and a number of other members of the said tribe desire at the present time to sever..."

BOWMAN's who signed the Treaty of 1839 between the Munsees and New York:

Elizabeth Bowman
Mary Jane Bowman
Edward Bowman
FULL TREATY: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sto0742.htm

Possible alternative spellings of the Bowman family among the Mohican:


source: http://www.censusrecords.com/search?state=wisconsin&censusyear=1940,1900&county=calumet&race=unknown,native%20american

BARTHOLOMEW BOWMAN (born 1834)

Bartholomew Bowman, born about 1834 is an interesting case as he represent a Bowman who begins his life among the Brotherton Lenape peoples of New Jersey. Then his family moves to Wisconsin and eventually we see them among the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohicans (see info above on Brotherton and Stockbridge-Munsee Mohican comnmunities). Mixing between these two communities was likely very common during this period considering their common origins, language and plight. His is the first Bowman line recorded joining the Mohican's in Wisconsin from another northeastern tribal group. However, other evidence does point to the Bowman family already existing in that community before his family joins them. More research will hopefully make this clearer.



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MARY JANE BRUSHEL was born on 10 May 1831 in Brothertown, Oneida Co., NY. She died in Richmond, Shawano Co., WI. She married EDWARD BOWMAN. He was born on 15 Feb 1835 in New Jersey. He died on 02 Apr 1890

1880 United States Federal Census
Name: Mary Bowman
Age: 48
Birth Year: abt 1832
Birthplace: Wisconsin
Home in 1880: Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin
Race: Indian (Native American)
Gender: Female
Spouse's Name: Edward Bowman
Father's Birthplace: New York
Mother's Birthplace: New York
Occupation: Keeps House
Edward Bowman 44
Mary Bowman 48
Samuel Bowman 23
Emmeline Bowman 16
John Bowman 13
Beaumont Bowman 10
Frank Leroy 40
Susan Leroy 22
Lewis Leroy 1

FEDERAL CENSUS:

Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin Family History Library Film 1255447
NA Film Number T9-1447
Page Number 404A

Edward BOWMAN Self M Male NA 44 WI Squatter NY NY
Mary BOWMAN Wife M Female NA 48 WI Keeps House NY NY
Samuel BOWMAN Son S Male NA 23 WI Laborer WI WI
Emmeline BOWMAN Dau S Female NA 16 WI At Home WI WI
John BOWMAN Son S Male NA 13 WI At Home WI WI
Beaumont BOWMAN Son S Male NA 10 WI At Home WI WI
Frank LEROY SonL M Male NA 40 WI Laborer WI WI
Susan LEROY Dau M Female NA 22 WI Keeps House WI WI
Lewis LEROY Son S Male NA 1 WI WI WI

LEWIS BOWMAN FEDERAL CENSUS:
1880 - Wisconsin - Calumet Co., Stockbridge
Bowman, Bartholmew Indian age 53 born New Jersey
Chicks, Elizabeth Indian age 70 born New Jersey Mother
Hannah Indian age 32 born WI Half-sister
Marian Mulatto age 12 born WI Nephew
Mary Jane Mulatto age 10 born WI Niece
Louis Mulatto age 8 born WI nephew
Orn Mulatto age 6 born WI Nephew
Welch, Ezekiah Mulatto age 20 Nephew
Bowman, Job Indian age 36 Brother

1880 United States Federal Census
about Samuel Bowman
Name: Samuel Bowman
Age: 23
Birth Year: abt 1857
Birthplace: Wisconsin
Home in 1880: Richmond, Shawano, Wisconsin
Race: Indian (Native American)
Gender: Male
Relation to Head of House: Son
Marital Status: Single
Father's Name: Edward Bowman
Father's Birthplace: Wisconsin
Mother's Name: Mary Bowman
Mother's Birthplace: Wisconsin



BOWMAN among the SHAWNEE

Europeans reported encountering Shawnee over a widespread geographic area. The earliest mention of the Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch map showing the Sawwanew just east of the Delaware River. Later 17th-century Dutch sources also place them in this general location. Accounts by French explorers in the same century usually located the Shawnee along the Ohio River, where they encountered them on forays from Canada and the Illinois Country.

The Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians descend from southeastern Kentucky's early multiracial settlers of 1790-1870. Their ancestors migrated to the central Appalachian region in the late 18th to mid 19th centuries.[1] The Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians are the only Native American tribe to have been recognized and honored by a body of the Kentucky General Assembly. In 2009 and 2010, resolutions by the State House of the Kentucky General Assembly recognized the Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians for their care of their children and elderly, and their work to preserve their culture and Native American heritage in the region, including prehistoric sites. In June 2013 the Pine Mountain Indian Community LLC announced that the Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians would become the heritage arm of this non profit organization. Within this new management structure the Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians will concentrate more on the heritage of the region while the Pine Mountain Indian Community will take the lead with regard to economic development and community development in Southeastern Kentucky.

The Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe have worked to strengthen and preserve Native American traditions and culture. They contributed to passage of local ordinances that prohibit digging, or artifact hunting, on county and city lands. One such ordinance was passed by the Harlan County, Kentucky fiscal court in 2006. The only such ordinance in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, it has decreased illegal artifact hunting and helped preserve prehistoric sites. The Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians were instrumental in the creation of the Harlan County Native American Site Protection Office.

The group members work with state, city and county officials to protect Native American cultural resources in Eastern Kentucky. They gained agreement from the city of Ashland, Kentucky to put a protective fence around prehistoric earthworks in a park; a site listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Indian Mounds in Central Park.

In addition, the tribe has developed a database of documented Native Americans in southeastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee, to make it easier for other persons to trace their ancestry. By December 2011, the Kentucky Native American Databank held basic genealogical data for more than 1000 names; it is hosted on the free genealogy site, Rootsweb. The tribe is seeking to preserve the Shawnee language, a Central Algonquian language that was traditional for many of its ancestors. Today it is spoken primarily by Shawnee in Oklahoma.

In 2009 and 2010, the State House of the Kentucky General Assembly recognized the Ridgetop Shawnee Tribe of Indians by passing, unopposed, House Joint Resolutions 15 or HJR-15 in 2009 and HJR-16 in 2010. These acknowledged the people's long history in the state, its efforts to preserve Native American heritage, as well as to help its elderly and young people.

The Ridgetop Shawnee require that prospective members prove documented descent from multiracial settlers in the region from 1790–1870, and also have Y-DNA or MtDNA showing direct-line Native American ancestry. Y-DNA and or MtDNA may only be used to show descent from documented individuals who are eligible for enrollment. In 2012 the Ridgetop Shawnee began the Express Enrollment program for descendants of several family lines of mixed-Native American heritage, who have been well-documented as migrating to Southeastern Kentucky, Northeastern Tennessee, and Southwestern Virginia in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. These families and lines are: Sizemore (KY), Fields (KY, VA), descendants of Hawkins Bowman (KY, VA), descendants of Ezekiel Bennett (KY, TN), descendants of John Cole (KY, VA) and descendants of Porter Jackson (KY, VA). In June 2012, the tribe limited enrollment to individuals who qualified to use Express Enrollment.

HAWKINS BOWMAN (born app. 1790)

INDIAN BLOOD RUNS IN
MANY HARLAN COUNTY FAMILIES
by Holly Fee-Timm
[originally published 3 June 1987
Harlan Daily Enterprise Penny Pincher]

"Many families in the mountains have traditions of being part Indian. Ed Ward refers to just such a tradition about Susannah Skidmore Farmer in his letter to the editor Saturday, May 30. Other families with a tradition of Indian blood are descendants of Isaac Callahan, some of the King and Jones families and the Sizemores. ......

.........The three major tribes in the Kentucky area with the greatest possibilities for intermarriage were the Cherokee, the Chickasaw and the Shawnee with the Cherokee being the most numerous in the immediate area. The Quadrule Indians mentioned as living locally were probably not a separate tribe. They were most likely a small group of one of the major tribes who simply settled here, more peaceful than many of their brethren.

There are two local families with documentary evidence supporting their claims to Indian blood. These are the Cole and Bowman families. The Coles are listed in census records for 1860 Lee County, Va., and for 1870 Harlan as being Indian. The state and counties of birth given for the Cole family of 1860 implies they moved around frequently. The head of the household, John Cole, was born about 1799 in Lincoln Co., North Carolina. His daughter Eliza was born in Scott Co., Va., and daughter Elisabeth, in Knox Co., Ky. Eliza's two children, Jacob and Elmira were born in Lee Co., Va.

Next door to John's household is another Eliza Cole, born about 1834 in Lee Co., Va., with two daughters - Jane born in Claiborne Co., Tenn., and Elisabeth born in Lee Co., Va. All of these Coles and a Jefferson Cole living in the same neighborhood were listed as Indians. Elsewhere in Lee County was a John M. Cole, 20, also of Indian blood.

In 1870, the younger Eliza Cole, her two children mentioned above and three more children, Robert, Mary Jane and Mollie were listed in Harlan County. All were indicated as being Indian. It must be noted that the degree of Indian blood is not listed in census and even a small fraction could be cause for such a listing.

Jacob Cole married Kizzie Eldridge, another family with a strong tradition of Indian blood. Mary Jane Cole married William Brittain, son of James and Jane Ely Brittain. The Coles were closely connected with another area family with proven Indian blood, the Bowmans. Hawkins Bowman was born about 1790 in North Carolina. In 1838, in Lee Co., Va., he married Nancy Barbour.

In 1879, his widow applied for a pension on his military service. She stated that he had served in the Tennessee Infantry in the War of 1812 under Captain Jesse Cole. She described him as being of dark complexion, commonly called part Indian and that he was about five-feet nine inches tall. They had at least seven children: George, Mary who married Hiram Fugate, Lucinda, John, Nancy, Thomas who married Mary Moore, and Elijah. In the 1860 census of Harlan County. Hawk Bowman is listed as a blacksmith. In the 1870 Harlan, the family is listed as Indian."

http://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/04/06/the-cole-and-bowman-families-of-harlan-co-ky/

BOWMAN among the ABENAKI

The Abenaki (Abnaki, Aln8bak) are a Native American tribe and a First Nations band government. They are one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America. The Abenaki live in Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada and in the New England region of the United States, a region called Wabanahkik ("Dawn Land") in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy. "Abenaki" is a linguistic and geographic grouping; historically there was not a strong central authority, but as listed below a large number of smaller bands and tribes who shared many cultural traits, and who came together as a post-contact community after their original tribes were decimated by colonization, warfare and disease.

George Bowman (1854-?)
(1) Abbe Jane Proper b. Abt. 1853, m (1) 7-Aug-1870, in Highgate, Franklin Co., VT, 16 George Bowman, m. http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DECKER/2001-07/0994882564

From the Missisquoi Abenaki Petition for Federal Recognition:
Page 343: Also in 1910, in Highgate, Joseph Bouman (Obomsawin) and Brisbois family appear in the records of Missisquoi. 1519. These two families hail from central Vermont and the Lake George community. Their presence suggests that migration back and forth to that area as well as Odanak was still occurring in 1910. In fact, oral tradition from the Bowman Joseph Bruchac family and the Maurice Denis Adirondack Abenaki family has confirmed the existence of the Vermont Abenaki community in the 20th century. 1520. Footnote 1519. See Household # 232 in 1910 Highgate, Vermont Census in Appendix 11. Footnote 1520. 2282, 8/5/83: 2283, 8/5/83: 1-4.

Brisbois is a common Odanak/Saint Francis Abenaki family. It is usually spelled Plispwa in Abenaki.

Brisbois, Blispwa or Plispwa
Dubois
Wood - U.S.
Earliest Occurrences of the Name
1757 Michel Dubois is recorded as 'Sauvage' in parish registers
Francois Brisebois appears on the Odanak roster of 1812 veterans with heirs in 1844
Francois Brisebois [Jr], changed his name to Frank Wood and moved to the US.
Places Family is Found
Odanak - 1812 to 20th Century
Durham
NY State

Notes:
The family names appears in St. Francois church records from the early 1700s. However, the only documented Native connections we have are the two Francois' that m. Abenaki women and Michel Dubois 'Sauvage' that married at St. Francois in 1757. The elder Francois died about 1823. His son, Francois Xavier, was living with the younger Charles Chouaganne in 1841 and in 1844 he is listed as absent 2 years. He m. 1844 Anastasie Obomsawine. She died between 1857 & 1861. Francois Xavier appears to be the man that m. Marie Eulalie Phaneuf at Coopersville NY in 1859 and started a 2nd family using the surnames Dubois & Wood. The children of his 1st marriage are living with relatives at Odanak in 1861.

Obomsawine
Obumsawin
Roberts
DeGonzague / de Gonzague
perhaps Abomazeen on the Kennebec River
Places Family is Found
Odanak
Missisquoi
Earliest Occurrences of the Name
perhaps Abomazeen, a chief from Norridgewock killed in 1724.
1765 Joseph Abomsawin signed the Robertson lease of Missisquoi land.
1769 Francois Xavier Abemesin was a chief at Odanak.

Notes:
The Robert & de Gonzague families are believed to be a branch of the Obomsawin family. [Day] A document written in 1882 and citing Maurault's history of the Abenaki claims that the Obomsawin family descends from a white captive brought to Odanak during the colonial wars. One researcher believes that Pierre Joseph Robert Obomsawin of Odanak is the son of Joseph Robert Namur whose parents were married at Fort St. Frederick in 1751.
Source: http://www.nedoba.org

Maurice Denis, an elder and tradition bearer of the Odanak Reservation, who ran the Indian Village at the Enchanted Forest in Old Forge, New York believed that the Bowman family and Obomsawin family were the same. There is no way to prove this, however, it is clear that, based on the available documentation, the BOMAN/BOWMAN as an Eastern Algonquian Family name, can actually be traced back farther in time than OBOMSAWIN. BOWMAN is first documented in 1656 with WILLIAM BOMAN signs the "Nipmuck Deed of John Stone," and OBOMSAWIN in 1693 as BOMMASIN signs the "Truce at Pemaquid."

OBOMSAWIN FAMILY EARLIEST RECORDED SPELLINGS:

Bommasin Jul.21, 1693
Bommasin signed a truce at Pemaquid
Vol.30 : Page 333

Bomaseen Aug.11, 1693
Bomaseen is in a treaty of the Eastern Indians
Vol.30 : Page 339

Bomaseen/Bombaseen/Bomazeen 1694/1695/1706/1710/1721/1724
Bomaseen, a Norridgewock Chief, is mentioned in Governor Hutchinson's manuscript history of Massachusetts Vol.2
Vol.28 : Folio 11 : Pages 57,60-61 Vol.28 : Folio 18 : Page 128 Vol.28 : Folio 20 : Page 149 Vol.28 : Folio 31 : Page 212 Vol.28 : Folio 36 : Pages 241, 243 Vol.28 : Folio 54 : Page 343 Vol.28 : Folio 61 : Pages 53-55,58 Vol.28 : Folio 68 : Page 94 Vol.28 : Folio 73 : Page 113 Vol.28 : Folio 86 : Page 166 Vol.28 : Folio 90 : Page 188 Vol.28 : Folio 91 : Page 190

Bomaseen May 31, 1695
Bomaseen is an Eastern Indian; an account by Grace Higiman of his bringing English prisoners and scalps to the French; he also commanded in an attack on Oyster River
Vol.8 : Pages 36-38

Bomaseen Jun.11, 1695
Bomaseen took part in an attack on Oyster River killing Ann Jenkin's husband and also a child; also taking Ann Jenkin, her three remaining children and other inhabitants captive Vol.8 : Page 40

Bomaseen/Bummaseen Jul.13, 1713
Bomaseen is a delegate from Kennebeck
Vol.29 : Pages 4,6
Bomazeen/Bombazeen 1694

Bomazeen, a Norridgewock Chief, is mentioned in Governor Hutchinson's manuscript history of Massachusetts Vol.2
Vol.28 : Folio 11 : Pages 56-57

Bomazeen, Capt. Dec.27, 1701
Captain Bomazeen is a messenger for a Sagamore at Norridgewock
Vol.30 : Pages 480,482

Bomazene/Bumazen Mar.7, 1695/1696
Bomazene was a prisoner from Mar.1-Dec.5, 1695 at a cost of L4 19s 6d and from Dec.5, 1695-Feb.27, 1696 at a cost of L2 8s according to keeper Caleb Ray's account Vol.40 : Page 351

Bomazy Jun.17, 1696
Bomazy with hostages was, according to keeper Caleb Ray's petition, boarded at an inadequate compensation at a Boston jail from Dec.5, 1695-Feb.27, 1696 and thereafter at a cost of L17 18s 11d
Vol.40 : Page 373

Bomazyn Jun.11, 1697
Bomazyn was in a Boston jail between Mar.23-May 26, 1697; keeper Caleb Ray sought L1 16s as a reimbursement for the cost of board
Vol.40 : Pages 448,450

Bomazyn Sep.8-Oct.29, 1697
Bomazyn was kept in a Boston jail between May 26-Oct.13, 1697 at a cost of L4
Vol.40 : Pages 465,468

Bomazyn Dec.18, 1697
Bomazyn and Sheepscot John's two sons were in a Boston jail from Oct.13, 1697 to date at a total cost of L5 13s
Vol.40 : Page 499

Bomazyn Dec.1, 1698
Bomazyn was in a Boston jail between Jun.3-Nov.18, 1698 at a cost of L4 16s
Vol.40 : Page 532

Bombasine 1697/1698
a petition of Bombasine stating that he has been imprisoned for four years and is asking for a trial
Vol.30 : Page 437

Bombazeen May 23, 1698
a deposition of Damson Drew as to Bombazeen's treatment of her in the attack on Oyster River in 1694
Vol.8 : Page 41

Bombazeen Nov.30, 1698
Bombazeen and two others are to accompany the commissioners to the eastward and kept safe until all captives are delivered
Vol.30 : Page 438a

Bombazin Mar.16, 1694/1695
Bombazin was in a Boston prison between Nov.28-Dec.10, 1694; he was ordered by the Council to "go to the eastward"; returning, he was again committed on Feb.16, 1695 (unreleased as of March 1); keeper Caleb Ray's account included items bearing on the custody of Bombazin
Vol.40 : Page 313

Bommazeen Jul.23-28, 1714
Bommazeen, a Norridgewock Indian, is mentioned in a report of a conference
Vol.29 : Page 39

Bomoseene, Capt. Jun.25, 1695
Captain Bomoseene was held as a prisoner for seventeen weeks for whose maintenance keeper Caleb Ray disbursed L2 2s 6d
Vol.40 : Page 327

Bonkin, John Dec.2, 1751
John Bonkin is a Nantucket Indian; John is in a complaint against the English inhabitants of the island
Vol.32 : Page 391a

Boowoowonit, Jose Mar.13, 1694/1695
Jose Boowoowonit is a Nantucket Indian; Jose is in a petition
Vol.30 : Page 363

Bomoseen, signature, Treaty of Portsmouth (1713)
From DAWNLAND VOICES: WRITING OF INDIGENOUS NEW ENGLAND
Dublin Core

The signature of Abenaki sachem Bomoseen is one of many attached to the Portsmouth Peace Treaty of July 13, 1713. Some of these signatures are printed in spiraled cursive while others are elaborate totems, emblems used by Native American leaders to represent their tribe (1). Most totems on the treaty are recognizable figures like turtles, birds, or deer, but Bomoseen's is not as easily discernible. Some, like Mary Calvert, have speculated that "Bomoseen's totem is a charming drawing of a girl's head bringing to mind that he had a dearly loved daughter" (2). This claim can be argued however, mirroring the complicated and debatable legacy Bomoseen left behind. Known best for leading the attack on Oyster River Plantation in 1694, he was a man revered by his Abenaki tribesmen and loathed by the British. But to understand Bomoseen and his place in the Oyster River Massacre, one must look deep into history prior to the raid and the related Portsmouth Peace Treaty to see the conflicts that had driven the Abenaki's to fight in a white man's war.

A two sentence summary of the Oyster River Massacre is etched into a plaque on the banks of Mill Pond in Durham, New Hampshire:

"On July 18, 1694, a force of about 250 Indians under command of the French soldier, de Villieu, attacked settlements in this area on both sides of the Oyster River, killing or capturing approximately 100 settlers, destroying five garrison houses and numerous dwellings. It was the most devastating French and Indian raid in New Hampshire during King William's War." While the dates and numbers are true, this memorial promotes the one-sided history that has been passed down for generations, retelling the event as an unprovoked attack on a sleepy New England colony. What is often excluded in these accounts is the expansionist culture of the British settlers, who had begun invading Abenaki territory many years earlier. While the Abenaki people witnessed the land they once knew drastically altered by colonization, they took action to save their tribe from devastation by adapting to European war customs and forming an alliance with the French.

As historian Craig Brown explains, "the Abenaki regarded themselves as a military power on equal footing with the Europeans. The Indians were fighting primarily to recover kinsmen taken by the English and to push back English encroachment on their land" (3). For years, Abenakis struggled to continue their way of life as the British pushed them off their land in Eastern New Hampshire and Southern Maine, blocking their fishing sites and damaging their corn crops with loose cattle. The Abenaki view of land rights can be seen through Bomoseen's own words as reported to the Council of Massachusetts by John Hill: "all those lands belonged to his uncle Moxis the Chief Sachamor of that place, and [John Hill] saith that those Eastern Indians carry themselves very surly and insolently and do say, that the English shall not repossess and enjoy ye lands in ye province of Maine than by agreement with them" (4). The Abenaki realized that their best approach to dealing with these people was to follow European customs, including using treaties and agreements to come to compromises. Although Bomoseen's request to respect Abenaki land should have come as a forewarning for future conflict to come, his words were often ignored by the British, who constantly "encroach[ed] on [Abenaki] territory creating much tension between the two peoples, which fed a continuing cycle of diplomatic negotiations and violent clashes" (4) including the Oyster River Massacre.

During King William's War, fought from 1689 to 1697, French-Abenaki raids on British settlements were a common battle tactic. After the Treaty of Pemaquid was signed in 1693, outlining peace and trade conditions between the British and Abenaki, the French realized they had to keep their Abenaki allies on good terms if they wanted to win the war. Although thirteen Abenaki chiefs signed the document, "the English assumed that the signers of the treaty represented all the Indians, which reflected a dangerous lack of understanding of Indian politics and social structure" (3) Each smaller tribe had a chief, and any chief who did not sign the treaty did not feel like they had to listen to it. While some Abenaki clans agreed to these new acts of neutrality with the British, others remained loyal to the French.

When the governor of New France, Louis de Bade Frontenac heard news of the Treaty of Pemaquid, he enlisted the French military and Abenaki allies to invade Oyster River Plantation, a small town some ten miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean. The French were led by Claude-Sebastian de Villieu and the Abenakis by Bomoseen. The 250 Frenchmen and Indians attacked Oyster River Plantation on July 18, 1694, killing 45 settlers, taking 49 captive, and burning 5 homes to the ground. Hezekiah Mills, an Indian who allied with the British testified his account of the raid, claiming he "saw Bomaseen in his canoe which was well-laden. There was four English captives, some scalps and a large pack of plunder brought in that canoe" (5). This is one of very few first-person testimonies of the Oyster River Massacre, corroborating Bomoseen's commanding presence at the raid. Due in part to his leadership during the raid, it was determined a French and Abenaki success as the attack resulted in death, famine and destitution for British survivors.

Almost twenty years later, the French admitted defeat against the British in the War of Spanish Succession, which carried over into the New World territories. On January 19, 1712, the French signed the Treaty of Utrecht, establishing peace between the two powers and shifting control in many European nations. With command of New England, the British called Abenaki leaders to Portsmouth in July of 1713 to sign the Peace Treaty of Portsmouth, outlining the new rules tribes must follow under British command.

These included but were not limited to:

-Acknowledge themselves submissive, obedient subjects of Queen Anne
-Cease acts of hostility towards subjects of Great Britain and their estates
-Allow English settlers to return to their former settlements without molestation or claims by the Indians
-Address grievances in English court, rather than in "private revenge"
-Cast themselves upon Her Majesty for mercy and pardon for past rebellions, hostilities and violations of their promises

The signatures of Bomoseen and other Abenaki tribal leaders on this document shows their acceptance to follow British customs in an attempt to conduct themselves as a respectable military power. Although their French allies had lost, the Abenaki were not willing to abandon their dignity and followed the treaty until the British broke their promises, encroaching on land they promised not to touch. Bomoseen remained loyal to his people while attempting to do what was best for them, whether during the Oyster River Massacre, the Peace Treaty of Portsmouth, or other events during the French and Indian War in later years.

Works Cited:
(1) Kidder, Frederic. The Abenaki Indians: Their Treaties of 1713 & 1717, and a Vocabulary. Portland: Brown Thurston, 1859. Page 25.
(2) Calvert, Mary R. Black Robe on the Kennebec. Monmouth, 1991.
(3) Brown, Craig J. "The Great Massacre of 1694': Understanding the Destruction of Oyster River Plantation." Historical New Hampshire 53 (1998): 69-91.
(4) Belmessous, Saliha. Native Claims: Indigenous Laws Against Empire:1500-1920. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Page 108.
(5) Farnsworth, Janice. "Testimony of Hezekiah Miles, Friendly Indian, on Preparations of Attack on Groton & Oyster River." Northeast Captivity Stories. 3 April 2012 .



Chief BOMOSEEN signature:


BOWMAN among the MOHAWK

The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory is a reserve of the traditionally Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk nation on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada, across from Montreal. Recorded by French Canadians in 1719 as a Jesuit mission, it has also been known as Seigneury Sault du St. Louis, Caughnawaga and 17 European spelling variations of the Mohawk Kahnawake.

Kahnawake's territory totals an area of 48.05 square kilometres. Its resident population numbers about 8,000, with a significant number living off the territory. Its land base today is unevenly distributed due to federal Indian Act law that oversees individual land possession, unlike the Canadian norms that apply to the land around it. Kahnawake residents originally spoke their Mohawk language, and some learned French when under French rule. Allied with the British government during the American Revolutionary War and the Lower Canada Rebellion, they have since become mostly English speaking.

Historically the most easterly nation of the Haudenosaunee (Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy) and are known as the "Keepers of the Eastern Door". They were the first Iroquois tribe west of the Hudson River in present-day New York, where they protected other parts of the confederacy to the west against invasion by tribes from present-day New England and the coastal areas.

Kahnawake is one of several territories of the Mohawk Nation within the borders of Canada, including Kanesatake on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River northwest of Montreal; Akwesasne, which straddles the borders of Quebec, Ontario and New York; and the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation north of Lake Erie. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the community was historically considered one of the Seven Nations of Canada.

The name is derived from a Mohawk word meaning "place of the rapids", referring to their major village Caughnawaga near the rapids of the Mohawk River in New York. When converted Catholic Mohawk moved to the Montreal area, they named the new settlement after their former one. The highly visible proximity of the Lachine Rapids no doubt also influenced their naming decision.

Darren Bonnapart a Mohawk hostiorian suggests that the Bowman family at Kahnawake may have came after Roger's Raid hit the Abenaki Community of Odanak in 1759 as many Abenakis joined their community at that time.



CHIEF BEAUMAIN (born app. 1720)

Beaumain is a common variant spelling of Bowman.

"The continuous presence of small war parties in the field during the winter and major expeditions in the winter of 1755-56 and 1756-57 kept scores of hunters from their winter hunt, reducing the amoung of dried meat available for consumption in the spring and summer. Large-scale campaigning took place in the summer. This was a delicate time from an economic perspective, when stored produce from the previous harvest and the winter hunt was running out and the new crops were not yet in. Living among the Abenaki at Odanak, Titus King found that in the "month of July the indians with who I lived told me that their victuals was all gone." These costs of military participation were at least partly balanced by the logistical support provided by the French crown to Amerindian fighters and their families. Detailed records of these expenditures from September 1746, during the War of the Austrian Succession, gives some idea of the scope and scale of such support. When warriors in the field could not contribute to the support of their families, the French crown stepped in. Beaumain, a chief at Kahnawake, received seven metres of fine cloth and three metres of flannel "to clothe his family which he cannot do." Four Abenakis, then living at Kahnawake, received from the French an assortment of goods "to put them in a state to go to war." - The Canadian Iroquois and the Seven Years' War by D. Peter Macload, Canadian War Museum



From The Savage Damsel and the Dawf, "I'm sure you are every bit as dim as Sir Beaumains here." Sir Persant roared with laughter. "Well spoken,master dwarf! Mayhaps if this knight Sir Bowman will oblige me-" - Lady Lynet. pg 104. By Gerald Morris

What secret does Beaumain entrust to Lancelot? Beaumain told Lancelot the secret of his real name, which was Gareth.

DELIA BONE (1829-1882)
(dit BOWMAN, Bone, Bean, Benware, Benway, Benoit)

Birth: 1829
Kahnawake
Quebec, Canada

Death:
Feb. 27, 1882
South Burlington
Chittenden County
Vermont, USA

Spouse:
Peter Phillips (1809 - 1906)
Burial:
Saint Joseph Cemetery
Burlington
Chittenden County
Vermont, USA
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=101830591

Burial Permit Record
for
Delia BOWMAN
(nee: Bone/Benway/Benware/Lefebvre)
wife of "Old" Pierre Peter Phillips
No. 1103
Female
"Colored"
Age 47 years
Died
February 27 1882
South Burlington, Vermont
Catholic Cemetery







Delia Bowman's daughter:




STATE OF VERMONT'S RESPONSE
TO PETITION FOR FEDERAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT
OF THE ST. FRANCIS/SOKOKI BAND
OF THE ABENAKI NATION OF VERMONT
~
STATE OF VERMONT
WILLIAM H. SORRELL, ATTORNEY GENERAL
Eve Jacobs-Carnahan, Special Assistant Attorney General
December 2002
Second Printing, January 2003

Unredacted Document Pertaining to Exhibit 9 (Page 4)
PHILLIPS GENERAL HISTORY.
GENERATION II.
CHILDREN OF CATHERINE CADAIVE, AI, #1, AND ANTHONY PHILLIPS, AI, #2.
A#1. Delia Bone dit Bowman

This individual goes by a great variety of names. The vital statistics of her children record her name in the following ways:--

Rosella Bonne, Caroline Bone, Delina Bonno, Lemas Beam, Delina Bones (or Boner), Delina Benware, Rose Dellabaum, Delia Bowman, Delorne Bon.

Cora Stark Phillips, III #15, says that Lemas Bone was part Indian and part French. She came from an Indian Reservation Caughnewaga, sixteen miles from Montreal. The same informant says that Lemas Bone dit Bowman had a sister living at that reservation. She also has half/brothers, Tom and Frank Benway dit Bowman, living in Burlington on Winooski Road. Matilda Leopard Phillips (Young Matilda) said that Delia Bone Phillips has a sister, Lucy Bone Pecor, wife of Louis Pecor, a Civil War veteran. "Aunt Lucy" and her husband lived in Charlestown, N.H. Louis Pecor has a Government Pension. Lucy was really a half-sister of Lemas. Delia Bone was the first wife of Peter Phillips the first.

At some time Peter and Delia must have been living in Canada as their daughter Selina was born there. Somewhere about 1847 they were living in Highgate Falls, Vt. In 1865 they were living in Rutland. Some time between 1878 and 1885 they were living in Quechee, Vt.

According to the marriage record of her daughter Louise, Delia Bone was born in Quebec, Canada.

Delia Bone is buried in St. Joseph's Cemetery, Burlington. We have not verified her death.

BOWMAN Huron Ancestors

The Wyandot people or wendat, also called Huron, are indigenous peoples of North America. They traditionally spoke the Wyandot language, an Iroquoian language. By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandots settled in the area of the north shore of present-day Lake Ontario, before migrating to Georgian Bay. It was in that later location that they first encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615.

The modern Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups, the Wendat or Huron Confederacy and the Tionontate, called the Petun (tobacco people) by the French because of their cultivation of the crop. They were located in the southern part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois, the Haudenosaunee, then based in New York.

Today the Wyandot have a First Nations reserve in Quebec, Canada. They also have three major settlements in the United States, two of which have independently governed, federally recognized tribes.[1] Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages.

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon - HURON
2. Catherine 8enta Plat (Pillard) - HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Tom, Frank, Lucy & Delia BOWMAN

ADIRONDACK & UPSATE NEW YORK INDIAN ENCAMPMENTS

     The Adirondacks, Lake George and Saratoga Springs have been important to northeastern Native peoples. Greenfield Center is just three miles north of Saratoga Springs, NY. The Abenaki and Mohawk have a long relationship with this place. Like their ancestors, the 19th century Mohawk and Abenaki were drawn to the mineral springs not just as vendors but because they also considered the healing properties of the spring waters to be sacred. The mineral springs of Saratoga were the only naturally carbonated spring waters east of the Rocky Mountains. Saratoga is mentioned in both Laurent and Masta's Abenaki language books. Peter Paul Wz8khilain's was born around 1800 on the Raquette River in the Adirondack wilderness of upstate New York. Henry Lorne Masta's wife Caroline Tahamont was born Saratoga Springs, NY where she and other relatives lived each summer to sell their baskets in Congress Park. Famous Abenaki basketmaker Andrew Joseph was born in Saratoga Springs as well. There were several Indian encampments in and around Saratoga Springs. Strangely enough, and likely by pure chance, Sam Hill another well known Abenaki basketmaker 18th century lived at the base of Splinterville, in Greenfield Center, directly across the road from the home of where Jesse Bowman, Lewis Bowman's son lived a century later and I was raised.



     Emily Rolandson wrote that: One of the earliest camps was located at Pine Grove, near North Broadway.... It was more like a festival where the Indians happened to gather than an actual encampment, but Pine Grove set the standard for other encampments of the area. The largest and most famous of these camps was located in Congress Park. This encampment, also referred to as the Gypsy Camp, was originally founded in 1848 where Broadway and Ballston Avenue meet. A band of Indians arrived each year (probably from Canada) to staff the encampment. They arrived in late spring, and stayed through the end of autumn or whenever the first snow arrived.



     The camp was moved to Congress Park in the 1870s, on the corner of Circular Street and Spring Street. It remained there until 1902, when Richard Canfield purchased the property and replaced the camp with the Italian Gardens and Trout Pond of Congress Park (Rolandson 2005).



     DeGarmo says that most of the Native people who frequented the resort areas remained anonymous, segregated into enclaves throughout the region. The Fox Hill Indian settlement northwest of Saratoga Springs, whose inhabitants worked in the white oak barrel factory and usually traded at Batchlerville or Middle Grove is a case in point.



     Native people set up booths at local fairs and traveled to other resorts in the vicinity. The Fox Hill Indians made the trip into Saratoga Springs to sell provisions to the large hotels. They also marketed furs and wild medicinal plants, and sold homemade items to the tourists, including baskets, snowshoes, moccasins, gloves and mittens and small novelty birch bark canoes. The inhabitants of the Lake George Indian Encampment who were in the basket and souvenir business on site, traveled to the smaller outlying hotels to the north and at one time held classes in basket weaving for fashionable guests at the exclusive hotels on Lake George. The late Andrew Joseph (born 1892), half Abenaki and a renowned black ash basket maker, was born at an Indian Encampment in Saratoga Springs and learned the craft from his father, who sold baskets every summer to the large hotels on Long Lake and Blue Mountain Lake in the Adirondacks. (DeGarmo 1993).



LEWIS/LOUIS BOWMAN (born between 1842-1846)

Son of Joseph Charles Bowman and Sophia Raspberry (Laframboise). Wife Alice Van Antwerp. Lewis migrated to the US in 1860 from Canada. He moved to Greenfield Center, NY. He's listed as "a chopper" in 1890 and as "a farmer" in the "1900" New York state censuses. According to family tradition, his father Joe died in a log drive on the Kennebec river in Maine. There is a potential connection between Joe Bowman and Delia Bowman, born 1829 at Kahnawake (see info above). Perhaps siblings or cousins. Joe's grandson Jesse Bowman would often travel to visit relatives living in Vermont, where Delia and other Bowman's lived. Less is known about his mother, Sophia Raspberry. She does attempt to collect on his Civil War pension while residing in East Farnham, Quebec. East Farnham is part of the historic Missisquoi County of Quebec. The name of the county is derived from an Algonquin Abenaki word meaning "lots of waterfowl". Missisquoi County is part of the Eastern Townships, located on the western fringes of the Appalachian foothills. The western part of the county is situated on the Richelieu River plains.


Louis Bowman in Greenfield Center, NY

Physical description from Civil War Records:

Louis Bowman
Age: 20 years
Born: Canada
Occupation: Laborer
Eyes: Black
Hair: Black
Complexion: Dark
Height: 5 ft., 8 1/2 inches



Father listed as Joe Bowman mother as Sophia Raspberry.



BOWMAN and VAN ANTWERP Family in 1890 and 1900 Census records:




JESSE BOWMAN Son of Lewis Bowman.. Born August, 1886 Greenfield Center, NY.





Jesse Bowman with grandson James Edward Bruchac.



Marion Dunham Bowman and Jesse Bowman in Greenfield Center, NY home.

BOWMAN MOHAWK ancestry from VANANTWERP

10 Jesse Bowman
9. Alice Van Antwerp
8. Daniel Wynet Van Antwerp
7. Winant Van Antwerp
6. Douwe VanAntwerp
5. Hendrikje Fonda VanBuren
4. Aaltje VanNess VanBuren
3. Cornelius VanBuren
2. Elizabeth VanSlyck
1. Ots Toch Hartell

MARION BOWMAN BRUCHAC Daughter of Jesse. Born January 14, 1921. Greenfield Center, NY.



Marion Bowman Bruchac visiting with Julliette M. Sadoques at the Abenaki reservation of Odanak/Saint Francis, Quebec. 1988. Photo by Mary Ann Bruchac Lynch

JOSEPH BRUCHAC Son of Marion Bowman Bruchac. Born October 16th, 1942. Greenfield Center, NY.



Author/Storyteller Joseph Bruchac, 2015.

JESSE BOWMAN BRUCHAC Son of Joseph Bruchac. Born January 14th, 1972. Greenfield Center, NY.



L-R Michael Greyeyes, Kalani Queypo, Jesse Bowman Bruchac, Tatanka Means in South Africa shooting National Geographic's Saints & Strangers Movie.

JACOB BOWMAN BRUCHAC Son of Jesse Bowman Bruchac. Born 2008. Greenfield Center, NY.



Jacob Bowman Bruchac at the grave of his ggg-grandfather Lewis Bowman, 2015.

For more about the Bowman family of Greenfield Center, check out Joseph Bruchac's award winning autobiography BOWMAN'S STORE.


Pictured above, Joseph Bruchac with his grandfather Jesse Bowman.

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