home

search

pronunciation

radio

lessons

videos

sources

about

contact
Date: TBA
Abenaki Language Gathering
Ndakinna Education Center
Pebonkas
School Visits & Performances
Language, Music and Storytelling!
Book a visit today!
A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Basic Search Advanced Search
TRANSITIVE ANIMATE FORMS

TA: TRANSITIVE ANIMATE
Conjugation of the verb to use

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
The Reflexive and Reciprocal forms are also included. The Relative Pronouns are divided into two main classes Independent and Conjunct.

Independent Relatives
Independent forms use prefixed pronouns, separated by an apostrophe. These expressions are Independent, meaning they are complete sentences on their own. While other clauses of the sentences can be added, they need nothing else to make and ready for use.
I
we
you
you (plural)
he/she
they
me/myself
Nd'awakamzi
I use myself
-
Nd'awakamziw
I don't use myself
Kd'awakami
You use me
-
Kd'awakamiw
You don't use me
Kd'awakamiba
you (plural) use me
-
Kd'awakamibba
you (plural) don't use me
Nd'awakamegwa
s/he use me
-
Nd'awakamegowialmosa
s/he doesn't use me
Nd'awakamegok
They use me
-
Nd'awakamegowiak
They don't use me
us/ourselves
Kd'awakamzibna
We use ourselves
-
Kd'awakamziwbna
We don't use ourselves
Kd'awakamibna
You use us
-
Kd'awakamipbna
You don't use us
Kd'awakamibna
you (plural) use us
-
Kd'awakamipbna
you (plural) don't use us
Nd'awakamegonna
s/he use us
-
Nd'awakamegowinna
s/he doesn't use us
Nd'awakamegonnawak
They use us
-
Nd'awakamegowinnawak
They don't use us
you/yourself
Kd'awakamel
I use you
-
Kd'awakamelo
I don't use you
Kd'awakamelbna
We use you
-
Kd'awakamelwbna
We don't use you
Kd'awakamzi
You use yourself
-
Kd'awakameziw
You don't use yourself
Kd'awakamegw
He use you
-
Kd'awakamegowi
I doesn't use you
Kd'awakamegok
They use you
-
Kd'awakamegowiak
They don't use you
you (plural)
Kd'awakamelba
I use you (plural)
-
Kd'awakameloppa
I don't use you (plural)
Kd'awakamelbna
We use you (plural)
-
Kd'awakamelwbna
We don't use you (plural)
Kd'awakameziba
you (plural) use yourselves
-
Kd'awakameziwba
you (plural) don't use yourselves
Kd'awakamegw8
s/he use you (plural)
-
Kd'awakamegowiw8
s/he doesn't use you (plural)
Kd'awakamegw8k
They use you (plural)
-
Kd'awakamegowiw8k
They don't use you (plural)
him/her
Nd'awakam8
I use him
-
Nd'awakam8wi
I don't use him
Kd'awakam8nna
We use him
-
Kd'awakam8winna
We don't use him
Kd'awakam8
You use him
-
Kd'awakam8wi
You don't use him
Kd'awakam8w8
you (plural) use him
-
Kd'awakam8wiw8
you (plural) don't use him
Wd'awakam8
She does use him
-
Wd'awakam8wi
She doesn't use him
Wd'awakam8w8
They use him
-
Wd'awakam8wiw8
They don't use him
them
Nd'awakam8k
I use them
-
Nd'awakam8wiak
I don't use them
Kd'awakam8nnawak
We use them
-
Kd'awakam8winnawak
We don't use them
Kd'awakam8k
You use them
-
Kd'awakam8wiak
You don't use them
Kd'awakam8w8k
you (plural) use them
-
Kd'awakam8wiw8k
you (plural) don't use them
Wd'awakam8
s/he use them
-
Wd'awakam8wia
s/he doesn't use them
Wd'awakam8w8
They use them
-
Wd'awakam8wiw8
They don't use them
eachother
Nd'awakamdibna
We use eachother
Kd'awakamdiba
you (plural) use eachother
Wd'awakamdoak
They use eachother
someone
Nd'awakawa
I use someone
Nd'awakawa
We use someone
Kd'awakawa
You use someone
Kd'awakawa
you (plural) use someone
Wd'awakawa
s/he use someone
Wd'awakawa
They use someone
himself/herself
Wd'awakamzo
s/he can use himself
themselves
Wd'awakamzoak
They use themselves


Conjunct Relatives
Conjuncts express pronouns using suffixes. These conjunct forms are subordinate, meaning they are dependent on an Independent statement within the sentence. As you see in the chart below, the independent "wligen" meaning "it is good" is added to complete all the examples. Any Independent statement could be used.
I
we
you
you (plural)
he/she
they
me/myself
Wligen, awakamzia
It's good that I use myself
-
Wligen, 8da awakamzia
It's good that I don't use myself
Wligen, awakamian
It's good that you use me
-
Wligen, 8da awakamian
It's good that you don't use me
Wligen, awakamiakw
It's good that you (plural) use me
-
Wligen, 8da awakamiakw
It's good that you (plural) don't use me
Wligen, awakamiit
It's good that he/she use me
-
Wligen, 8da awakamiit
It's good that he/she don't use me
Wligen, awakamiidit
It's good that they use me
-
Wligen, 8da awakamiidit
It's good that they don't use me
us/ourselves
Wligen, awakamziak
It's good that we use ourselves
-
Wligen, 8da awakamziak
It's good that we don't use ourselves
Wligen, awakamiag
It's good that you use us
-
Wligen, 8daawakamiag
It's good that you don't use us
Wligen, awakamiagw
It's good that you (plural) use us
-
Wligen, 8da awakamiagw
It's good that you (plural) don't use us
Wligen, awakamiit
It's good that he/she use us
-
Wligen, 8da awakamiit
It's good, that s/he don't use us
Wligen, awakamiidit
It's good that they use us
-
Wligen, 8da awakamiidit
It's good that they don't use us
you/yourself
Wligen, awakamlan
It's good that I use you
-
Wligen, 8da awakamlano
It's good that I don't use you
Wligen, awakamlak
It's good that we use you
-
Wligen, 8da awakamlak
It's good that we don't use you
Wligen, awakamzian
It's good that you use yourself
-
Wligen, 8da awakamzian
It's good that you don't use yourself
Wligen, awakamgan
It's good that s/he use you
-
Wligen, 8da awakamgan
It's good that s/he doesn't use you
Wligen, awakamgok
It's good that they use you
-
Wligen, 8da awakamgok
It's good, that they don't use you
you (plural)
Wligen, awakamlagw
It's good that I use you (plural)
-
Wligen , 8da awakamlagw
It's good that I don't use you (plural)
Wligen, awakamlak
It's good that we use you (plural)
-
Wligen, 8da awakamlak
It's good that we don't use you (plural)
Wligen, awakamziagw
It's good that you (plural) use yourselves
-
Wligen, 8da awakamziagw
It's good that you (plural) don't use yourselves
Wligen, awakamogagw
It's good that s/he use you (plural)
-
Wligen, 8da awakamogagw
It's good that s/he doesn't use you (plural)
Wligen, awakamogagwak
It's good that they use you (plural)
-
Wligen, 8da awakamogagwak
It's good that they don't use you (plural)
him/her
Wligen, awakamok
It's good that I use him
-
Wligen, 8da awakamok
It's good that I don't use him
Wligen, awakamoak
It's good that we use him
-
Wligen, 8da awakamoak almos
It's good that we don't use him
Wligen, awakaw8an
It's good that you use him
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8an
It's good that you don't use him
Wligen, awakaw8agw
Its good that you (plural) use him
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8agw
It's good that you (plural) don't use him
Wligen, awakaw8d
It's good that s/he use him
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8d
It's good that s/he doesn't use him
Wligen, awakaw88dit
It's good that they use him
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw88dit
It's good that they don't use him
them
Wligen, awakamok
It's good that I use them
-
Wligen, 8da awakamok
It's good that I don't use them
Wligen, awakamok
We use them
-
Wligen, 8da awakamok
We don't use them
Wligen, awakaw8anak
It's good that you use them
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8anak
It's good that you don't use them
Wligen, awakaw8agwak
It's good that you (plural) use them
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8agwak
It's good that you (plural) don't use them
Wligen, awakaw8d
It's good that s/he use them
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8d almos
It's good that s/he doesn't use them
Wligen, awakaw88dit
It's good that they use them
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw88dit
It's good that they don't use them
eachother
Wligen, awakamdiak
It's good that we use eachother
-
Wligen, 8da awakamdiak
It's good that we don't use eachother
Wligen, awakamdian
It's good that you (plural) use eachother
-
Wligen, 8da awakamdian
It's good that you (plural) don't use eachother
Wligen, awakamdidit
It's good that they use eachother
-
Wligen, 8da awakamdidit
It's good that they don't use eachother
someone
Wligen, awakawaa
It's good that I use someone
Wligen, 'awakawaak
It's good that we use someone
Wligen, awakawaan
It's good that you use someone
Wligen, awakawaakw
It's good that you (plural) use someone
Wligen, awakaw88d
It's good that s/he use someone
Wligen, awakaw88dit
It's good that they use someone
himself/herself
Wligen, awakamzid
It's good that s/he can use her/himself
themselves
Wligen, awakamzidit
It's good that they use themselves


INDICATIVE FORMS
(HIM/HER/ANIMATE SINGULAR NOUN)

The Indicative forms are further divided into Finite and Infinite, and Independent and Conjunct Forms.
Independent Indicative
Infinite (a)

These forms can be used with any Animate Singular Noun. We have added the animate noun "dog", however any animate noun can be put in its place. If no noun is present, it is translated as "I use him or her"
(see Independent Relative Pronoun Charts above)
Singular
Plural
Present
Nd'awakaw8 almos
I use a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8w almos
I don't use a dog
Nd'awakaw8bna almos
We use a dog (exclusive - me and him)
-
8da Nd'awakaw8pbna almos
We don't use a dog (exclusive)
The Inclusive Form (me and you) is only shown here, but can be used with all Independent forms by simply using second person pronoun k' or kd'- with the first person plural suffix -bna.
Kd'awakaw8bna almos
We use a dog (inclusive - me and you)
-
8da Kd'awakaw8pbna almos
We don't use a dog (inclusive)
Kd'awakaw8 almos
You use a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8w almos
You don't use a dog
Kd'awakaw8ba almos
you (plural) use a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8pba almos
you (plural) don't use a dog
Wd'awakama almosa
s/he use a dog
-
8da Wd'awakamawi almosa
s/he doesn't use a dog
Wd'awakawak almosa
They use a dog
-
8da Wd'awakamawiak almosa
They don't use a dog
Present Perfect
Kizi Nd'awakaw8 almos
I have used a dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8w almos
I haven't used a dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8bna almos
We have used a dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8pbna almos
We haven't used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8 almos
You have used a dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8w almos
You haven't used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8ba almos
you (plural) have used a dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8pba almos
you (plural) haven't used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakama almosa
s/he has used a dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakamawi almosa
s/he hasn't used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakawak almosa
They have used a dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakamawiak almosa
They haven't used a dog
Past Indirect
Nd'awakaw8za almos
I must of used a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8za almos
I must not of used a dog
Nd'awakaw8bnossa almos
We must of used a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8pbnossa almos
We must not of used a dog
Kd'awakaw8za
You must of used a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8za
You must not of used a dog
Kd'awakaw8b8ssa almos
you (plural) must of used a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8pb8ssa almos
you (plural) must not of used a dog
Wd'awakaw8za almosa
s/he must of used a dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wiza almosa
s/he must not of used a dog
Wd'awakaw8ssa almosa
They must of used a dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wissa almosa
They must not of used a dog
Past
Nd'awakaw8b almos
I used a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8b almos
I didn't use a dog
Nd'awakaw8bnop almos
We used a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8pbnop almos
We didn't use a dog
Kd'awakaw8b
You used a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8b
You didn't use a dog
Kd'awakaw8b8p almos
you (plural) used a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8pb8p almos
you (plural) didn't use a dog
Wd'awakamab almosa
s/he used a dog
-
8da Wd'awakamawib almosa
s/he didn't use a dog
Wd'awakamabanik almosa
They used a dog
-
8da Wd'awakamawibanik almosa
They didn't use a dog
Past Perfect
Kizi Nd'awakaw88b almos
I have used a dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw88b almos
I haven't used a dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8bnoob almos
We have used a dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8pbnoob almos
We haven't used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw88b almos
You have used a dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw88b almos
You haven't used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8b88b almos
you (plural) have used a dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8pb88b almos
you (plural) haven't used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakama8b almosa
s/he have used a dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakama8wib almosa
s/he haven't used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakama8banik almosa
They have used a dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakama8wibanik almosa
They haven't used a dog
Future
Nd'awakaw8ji almos
I will use a dog
-
Ndaba Nd'awakaw8w almos
I will not use a dog
Nd'awakaw8bnaji almos
We will use a dog
-
Ndaba Nd'awakaw8pbna almos
We will not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8ji almos
You will use a dog
-
Ndaba Kd'awakaw8w almos
You will not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8baji almos
you (plural) will use a dog
-
Ndaba Kd'awakaw8pba almos
you (plural) will not use a dog
Wd'awakamaji almosa
s/he will use a dog
-
Ndaba Wd'awakamawi almosa
s/he will not use a dog
Wd'awakawakji almosa
They will use a dog
-
Ndaba Wd'awakamawiak almosa
They will not use a dog
Future Perfect/Second Future
Kizi Nd'awakaw8ji almos
I will have used a dog
-
Asmaji Nd'awakaw8w almos
I will not have used a dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8bnaji almos
We will have used a dog
-
Asmaji Nd'awakaw8pbna almos
We will not have used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8ji almos
You will have used a dog
-
Asmaji Kd'awakaw8w almos
You will not have used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8baji almos
you (plural) will have used a dog
-
Asmaji Kd'awakaw8pba almos
you (plural) will not have used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakamaji almosa
s/he will have used a dog
-
Asmaji Wd'awakamawi almosa
s/he will not have used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakawakji almosa
They will have used a dog
-
Asmaji Wd'awakamawiak almosa
They will not have used a dog
Independent Indicative
Finite (the)

These forms can be used with any Animate Singular Noun. We have added the animate noun "dog", however any animate noun can be used in its place.
The Finite forms shown here are used to signal a specific noun.
Singular
Plural
Present
Nd'awakaw8 almos
I use the dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8wi almos
I don't use the dog
Nd'awakaw8nna almos
We use the dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8winna almos
We don't use the dog
Kd'awakaw8 almos
You use the dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wi almos
You don't use the dog
Kd'awakaw8w8 almos
you (plural) use the dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wiww8 almos
you (plural) don't use the dog
Wd'awakaw8 almosa
s/he use the dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wia almosa
s/he doesn't use the dog
Wd'awakaw8w8 almosa
They use the dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wiw8 almosa
They don't use the dog
Present Perfect/Past Indefinite
Kizi Nd'awakaw8 almos
I have used the dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8wi almos
I haven't used the dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8nna almos
We have used the dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8winna almos
We haven't used the dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8 almos
You have used the dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8wi almos
You have used the dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8w8 almos
you (plural) have used the dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8wiw8 almos
you (plural) haven't used the dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8 almosa
s/he has used the dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakaw8wia almosa
s/he hasn't used the dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8w8 almosa
They have used the dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakaw8wiw8 almosa
They haven't used the dog
Past Indirect
Nd'awakaw8za almos
I must of used the dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8wiza almos
I must not of used the dog
Nd'awakaw8nnossa almos
We must of used the dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8winnossa almos
We must not of used the dog
Kd'awakaw8za almos
You must of used the dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wiza almos
You must not of used the dog
Kd'awakaw8w8ssa almos
you (plural) must of used the dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wiw8ssa almos
you (plural) must not of used the dog
Wd'awakaw8zani almosa
s/he must of used the dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8zani almosa
s/he must not of used the dog
Wd'awakaw8w8ssani almosa
They must of used the dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wiw8ssani almosa
They must not of used the dog
Past
Nd'awakaw8b almos
I used the dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8wib almos
I didn't use the dog
Nd'awakaw8nnop almos
We used the dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8winnop almos
We didn't use the dog
Kd'awakaw8b almos
You used the dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wib almos
You didn't use the dog
Kd'awakaw8w8p almos
you (plural) used the dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wiw8p almos
you (plural) didn't use the dog
Wd'awakaw8bani almosa
s/he used the dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wibani almosa
s/he didn't use the dog
Wd'awakaw8w8bani almosa
They used the dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wiw8bani almosa
They didn't use the dog
Past Perfect
Kizi Nd'awakaw88b almos
I have used the dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw88wib almos
I haven't used the dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8nnoob almos
We have used the dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8winnoob almos
We haven't used the dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw88b almos
You have used the dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw88wib almos
You haven't used the dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8w88b almos
you (plural) have used the dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8wiw88b almos
you (plural) haven't used the dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw88bani almosa
s/he have used the dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakaw88wibani almosa
s/he haven't used the dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw88w8bani almosa
They have used the dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakaw88wiwbani almosa
They haven't used the dog
Future
Nd'awakaw8ji almos
I will use the dog
-
Ndaba Nd'awakaw8wi almos
I will not use the dog
Nd'awakaw8naji almos
We will use the dog
-
Ndaba Nd'awakaw8winna almos
We will not use the dog
Kd'awakaw8ji almos
You will use the dog
-
Ndaba Kd'awakaw8wi almos
You will not use the dog
Kd'awakaw8w8ji almos
you (plural) will use the dog
-
Ndaba Kd'awakaw8wiw8 almos
you (plural) will not use the dog
Wd'awakaw8ji almosa
s/he will use the dog
-
Ndaba Wd'awakaw8wia almosa
s/he will not use the dog
Wd'awakaw8w8ji almosa
They will use the dog
-
Ndaba Wd'awakaw8wiw8 almosa
They will not use the dog
Future Perfect/Second Future
Kizi Nd'awakaw8ji almos
I will have used the dog
-
Asmaji Nd'awakaw8wi almos
I will not have used the dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8naji almos
We will have used the dog
-
Asmaji Nd'awakaw8winna almos
We will not have used the dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8ji almos
You will have used the dog
-
Asmaji Kd'awakaw8wi almos
You will not have used the dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8w8ji almos
you (plural) will have used the dog
-
Asmaji Kd'awakaw8wiw8 almos
you (plural) will not have used the dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8ji almosa
s/he will have used the dog
-
Asmaji Wd'awakaw8wia almosa
s/he will not have used the dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8w8ji almosa
They will have used the dog
-
Asmaji Wd'awakaw8wiw8 almosa
They will not have used the dog
Conjunct Indicative
These forms can be used with any Animate Singular Noun. We have added the animate noun "dog", however any animate noun can be used in its place. The conjunct statements are used to answer, as a question, or as a subordinant clause. For this reason we have also added the Independent statement "it is good" in order to offer a complete example. This can be replaced with any independent statement.
Singular
Plural
Present
Wligen awakamok almos
It's good that I use a dog
-
Wligen, 8da awakamok almos
It's good that I don't use
Wligen awakamoak almos
It's good that we use a dog
-
Wligen, 8da awakamoak almos
It's good that we don't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8an almos
It's good that you use a dog
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8an almos
It's good that you don't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8agw almos
It's good that you all use a dog
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8agw almos
It's good that you all don't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8d / Wligen awakaw8lid almosa
It's good that he/she use a dog
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw8d / Wligen awakaw8lid almosa
It's good that he/she doesn't use a dog
Wligen awakaw88dit almosa
It's good that they use a dog
-
Wligen, 8da awakaw88dit almosa
It's good that they don't use a dog
Present Perfect
Wligen, kizi awakamok almos
It's good that I have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakamok almos
It's good that I haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakamoak almos
It's good that we have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakamoak almos
It's good that we haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw8an almos
It's good that you have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw8an almos
It's good that you haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw8agw almos
It's good that you (plural) have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw8agw almos
It's good that you (plural) haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw8d almosa
It's good that he/she has used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw8d almosa
It's good that he/she hasn't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw88dit almosa
It's good that they have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw88dit almosa
It's good that they haven't used a dog
Past
Wligen awakamokza almos
It's good that I used a dog
-
Wligen awakamokza almos
It's good that I didn't use a dog
Wligen awakamoakza almos
It's good that we used a dog
-
Wligen awakamoakza almos
It's good that we didn't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8aza almos
It's good that you used a dog
-
Wligen awakaw8aza almos
It's good that you didn't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8akwza almos
It's good that you (plural) used a dog
-
Wligen awakaw8akwza almos
It's good that you (plural) didn't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8za almos
It's good that he/she used a dog
-
Wligen awakaw8za almos
It's good that he/she didn't used
Wligen awakaw88diza almos
It's good that they used a dog
-
Wligen awakaw88diza almos
It's good that they didn't used
Past Perfect/Pluperfect
Wligen, kizi awakamokza almos
It's good that I have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakamokza almos
It's good that I haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakamoakza almos
It's good that We have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakamoakza almos
It's good that We haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw8aza almos
It's good that you have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw8aza almos
It's good that you haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw8akwza almos
It's good that you (plural) have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw8akwza almos
It's good that you (plural) haven't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw8za almosa
It's good that he/she have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw8za almosa
It's good that he/she hasn't used a dog
Wligen, kizi awakaw88diza almosa
It's good that they have used a dog
-
Wligen, kizi awakaw88diza almosa
It's good that they haven't used a dog
Future
Wligen awakamokji almos
It's good that I will use a dog
-
Wligen awakamokji almos
It's good that I won't use a dog
Wligen awakamoakji almos
It's good that we will use a dog
-
Wligen awakamoakji almos
It's good that we won't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8anji almos
It's good that you will use a dog
-
Wligen awakaw8anji almos
It's good that you won't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8agwji almos
It's good that you (plural) will use a dog
-
Wligen awakaw8agwji almos
It's good that you (plural) won't use a dog
Wligen awakaw8dji almosa
It's good that he/she will use a dog
-
Wligen awakaw8dji almosa
It's good that he/she won't use a dog
Wligen awakaw88diji almosa
It's good that they will use a dog
-
Wligen awakaw88diji almosa
It's good that they won't use a dog
Future Perfect/Second Future
Wligen, kiziji awakamok almos
It's good that I will have used a dog
-
Wligen, kiziji awakamok almos
It's good that I won't have used a dog
Wligen, kiziji awakamoak almos
It's good that we will have used a dog
-
Wligen, kiziji awakamoak almos
It's good that we won't have used a dog
Wligen, kiziji awakaw8an almos
It's good that you will have used a dog
-
Wligen, kiziji awakaw8an almos
It's good that you won't have used a dog
Wligen, kiziji awakaw8agw almos
It's good that you (plural) will have used a dog
-
Wligen, kiziji awakaw8agw almos
It's good that you (plural) won't have used a dog
Wligen, kiziji awakaw8d almosa
It's good that he/she will have used a dog
-
Wligen, kiziji awakaw8d almosa
It's good that he/she won't have used a dog
Wligen, kiziji awakaw88dit almosa
It's good that they will have used a dog
-
Wligen, kiziji awakaw88dit almosa
It's good that they won't have used a dog
Conjunct Conditional
These forms can be used with any Animate Singular Noun. The Conditional Form is only slightly different from the regular Conjunct Indicative. We have added "wskebi" meaning "perhaps" but any interrogative or demonstrative pronoun (like "how, where, when") could be used in its place. For example, "t8ni awakaw8an" meaning "where do you use a dog?"
Singular
Plural
Present
Wskebi awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I use a dog
-
Walma awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I don't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we use a dog
-
Walma awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we don't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you use a dog
-
Walma awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you don't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) use a dog
-
Walma awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) don't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8nek almosa
Perhaps he/she use a dog
-
Walma awakaw8nek almosa
Perhaps he/she doesn't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they use a dog
-
Walma awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they don't use a dog
Present Perfect
Wskebi kizi awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8d almosa
Perhaps he/she has used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8d almosa
Perhaps he/she hasn't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they haven't used a dog
Past
Wskebi awakaw88za almos
Perhaps I used a dog
-
Walma awakaw88za almos
Perhaps I didn't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8akza almos
Perhaps we used a dog
-
Walma awakaw8akza almos
Perhaps we didn't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8aza almos
Perhaps you used a dog
-
Walma awakaw8aza almos
Perhaps you didn't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8akwza almos
Perhaps you (plural) used a dog
-
Walma awakaw8akwza almos
Perhaps you (plural) didn't use a dog
Wskebi awakaw8za almosa
Perhaps he/she used a dog
-
Walma awakaw8za almosa
Perhaps he/she didn't used
Wskebi awakaw88diza almosa
Perhaps they used a dog
-
Walma awakaw88diza almosa
Perhaps they didn't used
Past Perfect/Pluperfect
Wskebi kizi awakaw88za almos
Perhaps I have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw88za almos
Perhaps I haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8akza almos
We have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8akza almos
We haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8aza almos
Perhaps you have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8aza almos
Perhaps you haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8akwza almos
Perhaps you (plural) have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8akwza almos
Perhaps you (plural) haven't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8za almosa
Perhaps he/she have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8za almosa
Perhaps he/she hasn't used a dog
Wskebi kizi awakaw8diza almosa
Perhaps they have used a dog
-
Walma kizi awakaw8diza almosa
Perhaps they haven't used a dog
Future
Wskebiji awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I will use a dog
-
Walmaji awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I won't use a dog
Wskebiji awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we will use a dog
-
Walmaji awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we won't use a dog
Wskebiji awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you will use a dog
-
Walmaji awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you won't use a dog
Wskebiji awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) will use a dog
-
Walmaji awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) won't use a dog
Wskebiji awakaw8d almosa
Perhaps he/she will use a dog
-
Walmaji awakaw8d almosa
Perhaps he/she won't use a dog
Wskebiji awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they will use a dog
-
Walmaji awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they won't use a dog
Future Perfect/Second Future
Wskebiji kizi awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I will have used a dog
-
Walmaji kizi awakaw8a almos
Perhaps I won't have used a dog
Wskebiji kizi awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we will have used a dog
-
Walmaji kizi awakaw8ag almos
Perhaps we won't have used a dog
Wskebiji kizi awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you will have used a dog
-
Walmaji kizi awakaw8an almos
Perhaps you won't have used a dog
Wskebiji kizi awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) will have used a dog
-
Walmaji kizi awakaw8agw almos
Perhaps you (plural) won't have used a dog
Wskebiji kizi awakaw8d almosa
Perhaps he/she will have used a dog
-
Walmaji kizi awakaw8d almosa
Perhaps he/she won't have used a dog
Wskebiji kizi awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they will have used a dog
-
Walmaji kizi awakaw88dit almosa
Perhaps they won't have used a dog


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
The subjunctive is perhaps the most common and also most difficult to grasp, and there are a great number of different subjunctive uses. The subjunctive mainly expresses doubt or potential and what could have been.

Independent Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
Present
Nd'awakaw8n almos
That I may use a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8wen almos
That I may not use a dog
Nd'awakaw8nana almos
That we may use a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8wnana almos
That we may not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8n almos
That you may use a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wen almos
That you may not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8n8 almos
That you (plural) may use a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wn8 almos
That you (plural) may not use a dog
Wd'awakaw8n almosa
That s/hehe may use a dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wen almosa
That s/hehe may not use a dog
Wd'awakaw8n8 almosa
That they may use a dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wn8 almosa
That they may not use a dog
Present Perfect
Kizi Nd'awakaw8n almos
That I may have used a dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8wen almos
That I may not have used a dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8nana almos
That we may have used a dog
-
8da kizi Nd'awakaw8wnana almos
That we may not have used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8n almos
That you may have used a dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8wen almos
That you may not have used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8n8 almos
That you (plural) may have used a dog
-
8da kizi Kd'awakaw8wn8 almos
That you (plural) may not have used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8n almosa
That s/hehe may have used a dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakaw8wen almosa
That s/hehe may not have used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8n8 almosa
That they may have used a dog
-
8da kizi Wd'awakaw8wn8 almosa
That they may not have used a dog
Past
Nd'awakaw8naza almos
That I might have used a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8wnaza almos
That I might not have used
Nd'awakaw8nanossa almos
That we might have used a dog
-
8da Nd'awakaw8nan8ssa almos
That we might not have used
Kd'awakaw8naza almos
That you might have used a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wnaza almos
That you might not have used
Kd'awakaw8n8ssa almos
That you (plural) might have used a dog
-
8da Kd'awakaw8wn8ssa almos
That you (plural) might not have used
Wd'awakaw8naza almosa
That s/hehe might have used a dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wnaza almosa
That s/hehe might not have used
Wd'awakaw8n8ssa almosa
That they might have used a dog
-
8da Wd'awakaw8wn8ssa almosa
That they might not have used
Past Perfect/Pluperfect
Kizi Nd'awakaw8naza almos
That I might have used a dog
-
Asma Nd'awakaw8wnaza almos
That I might not have used a dog
Kizi Nd'awakaw8nanossa almos
That we might have used a dog
-
Asma Nd'awakaw8wnan8ssa almos
That we might not have used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8naza almos
That you might have used a dog
-
Asma Kd'awakaw8wnaza almos
That you might not have used a dog
Kizi Kd'awakaw8n8ssa almos
That you (plural) might have used a dog
-
Asma Kd'awakaw8wn8ssa almos
That you (plural) might not have used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8naza almosa
That s/hehe might have used a dog
-
Asma Wd'awakaw8wnaza almosa
That s/hehe might not have used a dog
Kizi Wd'awakaw8n8ssa almosa
That they might have used a dog
-
Asma Wd'awakaw8w8ssa almosa
That they might not have used a dog
Future
Chaga Nd'awakaw8n almos
If I were to use a dog
-
Ndaba chaga Nd'awakaw8wen almos
If I were not to use a dog
Chaga Nd'awakaw8nana almos
If we were to use a dog
-
Ndaba chaga Nd'awakaw8wnana almos
If we were not to use a dog
Chaga Kd'awakaw8n almos
If you were to use a dog
-
Ndaba chaga Kd'awakaw8wen almos
If you were not to use a dog
Chaga Kd'awakaw8n8 almos
If you (plural) were to use a dog
-
Ndaba chaga Kd'awakaw8wn8 almos
If you (plural) were not to use a dog
Chaga Wd'awakaw8n almosa
If he/she were to use a dog
-
Ndaba chaga Wd'awakaw8wen almosa
If he/she were not to use a dog
Chaga Wd'awakaw8n8 almosa
If they were to use a dog
-
Ndaba chaga Wd'awakaw8wn8 almosa
If they were not to use a dog
Future Perfect/Second Future
Chaga kizi Nd'awakaw8n almos
If I were to have used a dog
-
Asmaji kizi chaga Nd'awakaw8wen almos
If I were not to have used a dog
Chaga kizi Nd'awakaw8nana almos
If we were to have used a dog
-
Asmaji kizi chaga Nd'awakaw8wnana almos
If we were not to have used a dog
Chaga kizi Kd'awakaw8n almos
If you were to have used a dog
-
Asmaji kizi chaga Kd'awakaw8wen almos
If you were not to have used a dog
Chaga kizi Kd'awakaw8n8 almos
If you (plural) were to have used a dog
-
Asmaji kizi chaga Kd'awakaw8wn8 almos
If you (plural) were not to have used a dog
Chaga kizi Wd'awakaw8n almosa
If he/she were to have used a dog
-
Asmaji kizi chaga Wd'awakaw8wen almosa
If he/she were not to have used a dog
Chaga kizi Wd'awakaw8n8 almosa
If they were to have used a dog
-
Asmaji kizi chaga Wd'awakaw8wn8 almosa
If they were not to have used a dog
Conjunct Subjunctive
Singular
Plural
Present
Wskebiba awakaw8ga almos
Perhaps if I may use a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8ga almos
Perhaps if I may not use a dog
Wskebiba awakaw8aga almos
Perhaps if we may use a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8aga almos
Perhaps if we may not use a dog
Wskebiba awakaw8ana almos
Perhaps if you may use a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8ana almos
Perhaps if you may not use a dog
Wskebiba awakaw8agwa almos
Perhaps if you (plural) may use a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8agwa almos
Perhaps if you (plural) may not use a dog
Wskebiba awakaw8da almosa
Perhaps if he/she may use a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8da almosa
Perhaps if he/she may not use a dog
Wskebiba awakaw88dida almosa
Perhaps if they may use a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw88dida almosa
Perhaps if they may not use a dog
Present Perfect
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8ga almos
Perhaps if I may have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8ga almos
Perhaps if I may not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8aga almos
Perhaps if we may have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8aga almos
Perhaps if we may not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8ana almos
Perhaps if you may have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8ana almos
Perhaps if you may not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8agwa almos
Perhaps if you (plural) may have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8agwa almos
Perhaps if you (plural) may not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8da almosa
Perhaps if he/she may have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8da almosa
Perhaps if he/she may not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw88dida almosa
Perhaps if they may have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw88dida almosa
Perhaps if they may not have used a dog
Past
Wskebiba awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I might have used a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I might not have used
Wskebiba awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we might have used a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we might not have used
Wskebiba awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you might have used a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you might not have used
Wskebiba awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) might have used a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) might not have used
Wskebiba awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she might have used a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she might not have used
Wskebiba awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they might have used a dog
-
Walmaba awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they might not have used
Past Perfect/Pluperfect
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I might have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8geshanna almos
Perhaps if I might not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we might have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we might not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8nashana almos
Perhaps if you might have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you might not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) might have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) might not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she might have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she might not have used a dog
Wskebiba kizi awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they might have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they might not have used a dog
Future
Wskebiba chaga awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I were to use a dog
-
Walmaba chaga awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I were not to use a dog
Wskebiba chaga awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we were to use a dog
-
Walmaba chaga awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we were not to use a dog
Wskebiba chaga awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you were to use a dog
-
Walmaba chaga awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you were not to use a dog
Wskebiba chaga awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) were to use a dog
-
Walmaba chaga awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) were not to use a dog
Wskebiba chaga awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she were to use a dog
-
Walmaba chaga awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she were not to use a dog
Wskebiba chaga awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they were to use a dog
-
Walmaba chaga awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they were not to use a dog
Future Perfect/Second Future
Wskebiba chaga kizi awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I were to have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi chaga awakaw8geshana almos
Perhaps if I were not to have used a dog
Wskebiba chaga kizi awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we were to have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi chaga awakaw8ageshana almos
Perhaps if we were not to have used a dog
Wskebiba chaga kizi awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you were to have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi chaga awakaw8ashana almos
Perhaps if you were not to have used a dog
Wskebiba chaga kizi awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) were to have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi chaga awakaw8agweshana almos
Perhaps if you (plural) were not to have used a dog
Wskebiba chaga kizi awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she were to have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi chaga awakaw8shana almosa
Perhaps if he/she were not to have used a dog
Wskebiba chaga kizi awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they were to have used a dog
-
Walmaba kizi chaga awakaw88dishana almosa
Perhaps if they were not to have used a dog

Independent Conditional
Infinite (a)
Singular
Plural
Present
Nd'awakaw8ba almos
I should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8w almos
I should not use a dog
Nd'awakaw8bnaba almos
We should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8pbna almos
We should not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8ba almos
You should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8w almos
You should not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8baba almos
you (plural) should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8pba almos
you (plural) should not use a dog
Wd'awakamaba almosa
s/he should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawi almosa
s/he should not use a dog
Wd'awakawakba almosa
They should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawiak almosa
They should not use a dog
Past
Nd'awakaw8opba almos
I should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8b almos
I should not have used a dog
Nd'awakaw8bnaba almos
We should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8pbnop almos
We should not have used a dog
Kd'awakaw8opba almos
You should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8b almos
You should not have used a dog
Kd'awakaw8b8ba almos
you (plural) should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8pb8p almos
you (plural) should not have used a dog
Wd'awakamaopba almosa
s/he should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawib almosa
s/he should not have used a dog
Wd'awakamabanikba almosa
They should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawibanik almosa
They should not have used a dog
Independent Conditional
Finite (a)
Singular
Plural
Present
Nd'awakaw8nba almos
I should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8wen almos
I should not use a dog
Nd'awakaw8nanaba almos
We should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8wnana almos
We should not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8nba almos
You should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8wen almos
You should not use a dog
Kd'awakaw8n8ba almos
you (plural) should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8wn8 almos
you (plural) should not use a dog
Wd'awakamanba almosa
s/he should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawen almosa
s/he should not use a dog
Wd'awakawan8ba almosa
They should use a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakawawn8 almosa
They should not use a dog
Past
Nd'awakaw8nabba almos
I should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8wenab almos
I should not have used a dog
Nd'awakaw8nan8bba almos
We should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Nd'awakaw8wnanop almos
We should not have used a dog
Kd'awakaw8nabba almos
You should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8wenap almos
You should not have used a dog
Kd'awakaw8n8bba almos
you (plural) should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Kd'awakaw8wn8p almos
you (plural) should not have used a dog
Wd'awakamanabba almosa
s/he should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawenap almosa
s/he should not have used a dog
Wd'awakaman8bba almosa
They should have used a dog
-
Ndaaba Wd'awakamawn8p almosa
They should not have used a dog

Conjunct Imperative Mood
Used for basic and direct commands.
Singular
Plural
Present
awakaw8 almos
Allow me to use a dog
-
Akwi awakaw8 almos
Do not allow me to use a dog
awakaw8da almos
Let us use a dog
-
Akwi awakaw8da almos
Don't let us use a dog
awakaw8 almos
Allow you to use a dog
-
Akwi awakaw8 almos
Do not allow you to use a dog
awakaw8gw almos
Let you (plural) use a dog
-
Akwi awakaw8gw almos
Don't let you (plural) use a dog
awakaw8j almosa
Let him/her use a dog
-
Akwi awakaw8kij almosa
Don't let him/her use a dog
awakaw8dij almosa
Let them use a dog
-
Akwi awakaw8dikij almosa
Don't let them use a dog

home