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Western Abenaki Ditransitives


Ditransitive Verbs in Western Abenaki

prepared by Jesse Bruchac (JB) with help and guidance from Conor Quinn (CQ)


In grammar, a ditransitive verb is a verb which takes a subject and two objects. These objects may be called direct and indirect, or primary and secondary. This is in contrast to transitive verbs, which take only one object, a direct or primary object. - wiki


It's called the ethical dative, double object and/or possessor raising.


Ditransitives are very relational and personal, because they're about someone being affected by what you do to/with some thing of theirs.” (CQ)


Since all verbs have at least one subject, verbs are classified according to how many more

arguments/participants they have from there.


No more arguments (beyond the subject) = Intransitive” - CQ

examples:

Animate Intransitive (AI) wligo – he is good

Inanimate Intransitive (II) wligen – it is good


One more argument (the subject and the object) = Transitive” - CQ


examples:

Transitive Animate (TA) w'namih8 Az8 - he sees John

Transitive Inanimate (TI) w'namiton awighigan - he sees the book


Two more arguments (subject + indirect and direct; or in Algonquian terms, primary and

secondary) = Ditransitive” - CQ


example:

Ditransitive (DTV) k'milin migwen – you give me the feather


So ditransitives have a total of three arguments.

Subject, primary (indirect) object, and secondary (direct) object.

There are many ditransitives. The most basic/familiar is GIVE.

Others would include Pass. Like Pass me the salt. Or Throw, as in you throw me the ball. Or

sing, like “he sings me a song”. Or Bake, like can you bake him a cake?

The ditransitive almost always comes from adding in a recipient/beneficiary/affectee of the

action: the person you sing/bake FOR, the person you owe money TO, or the person you

steal something FROM.” - CQ




Part One: -i (me) and -a (him)



1. Mili – give me (milina give us)

mili nilil pilaskol – give me those papers


2. Mila – give him/her/them

mila kigawes kdagihi aplesa – give your mother another apple


Seeing the pattern:

hli – (you) tell me (something)

hla – tell him/her/them

namithli – (you) show me (something etc...)

namithla – show him/her/them

sami – feed me

sama – feed him/her/them

nadmihi – lend me

nadmiha – lend him/her/them

nadodmawi- ask me

nadodmawa – ask him/her/them

anhaldamawi – forgive me

anhaldamawa – forgive him/her/them


Commanding one person

1. mili – give me

2. mila – give him/her/them

mili pilaskw – give me paper

mila Az8 pilaskw – give John paper

mili migwen – give me a pen

mila Atian migweno – give Steven a pen/feather

mili pilaskol – give me the papers

mila pilaskol – give them the papers

mili migwenok – give me the feathers

mila kid8ba migweno – give your friend a pen


Examples:

1. Mili t8bi ta pakwa. Give me a bow and arrow. PPW

2. Mili wl8ganal. Give me dishes CW

3. Mili almos. Give me the dog CW

4. Mili kapi nitta. Give me coffee now CW

5. Mila t8bia ta pakwa. Give him a bow and arrow. PPW

6. N8zenemawi Touch something for me! JB

7. N8zenemawa Touch something for him! JB


Commanding a crowd!

milikw – (all of you) give me (something)

milokw – (all of you) give him/her/them

milikw pilaskw – give me paper

milokw pilaskw – give him/her/them paper

milikw migwen – give me a pen/feather

milokw migweno – give him/her/them a pen/feather

milikw pilaskol – give me papers

milokw pilaskol – give him/her/them papers

milikw migwenok – give me pens/feathers

milokw migweno – give him/her/them pens/feathers

(milinakw - you all give us)

Example:

Ni Sazos wdezidamôn wdihlôn, milokw Sazal tôni wadahimit, ta Kchiniwaskw tôni wadahimit Kchiniwaskw. And Jesus answering said unto them, render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. PPW





Part Two: k' (you), -el (me), -n (it)


3. k'mili – you give me (something)

k'mili mdala monial – you give me ten dollars


4. k'milelI give you

k'milel kwat – I give you a cup


5. k'milin – you give me it

k'milin awighigan – you give me the book


6. k'millen – I give you it

k'millen sen – I give you the stone


Starting a conversation

3. k'mili – you give me

4. k'milel – I give you

k'mili awighigan – you give me a book

k'milel pilaskw – I give you a paper

k'mili tassakwabon – you give me a chair

k'milel tassakwabon – I give you a chair

k'mili awighiganal – you give me books

k'milel awighiganal – I give you books

k'mili tassakwabonal – you give me chairs

k'milel tassakwabonal – I give you chairs


8da k'milio – you don't give me

8da k'milelo – I don't give you

8da k'milio awighigan – you don't give me a book.

8da k'milelo pilaskw – I don't give you a paper

8da k'milio tassakwabon – you don't give me a chair

8da k'milelo tassakwabon – I don't give you a chair

8da k'milio awighiganal – you don't give me books

8da k'milelo awighiganal – I don't give you books

8da k'milio tassakwabonal – you don't give me chairs

8da k'milelo tassakwabonal – I don't give you chairs


Continuing the conversation

5. k'milin – you give me

6. k'millen – I give you

k'milin awighigan – you give me the book

k'millen pilaskw – I give you the paper

k'milin tassakwabon – you give me the chair

k'millen tassakwabon – I give you the chair

k'milinal awighiganal – you give me the books

k'millenal awighiganal – I give you the books

k'milinak migwenok – you give me the pens

K'millenak migwenok – I give you the pens


8da k'miliwen – you don't give me

8da k'millowen – I don't give you



Examples:

1. Ndachwaldam tabna kmilin Azô noji sognebôlwat wdep tawiwi kchi wlôganek.

I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist. (Mark:25)


2. wikodmawi tônitta kagwi walaldaman, kmillenji.

Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee. (Mark:24)


3. Tônitta u wikodmawian kmillenji achikiba pabasiwi nginjameswi tbaldamwôgan.

Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom. (Mark:24)



other forms...

n'milegw – he gives me

n'milegon – he give me it

n'mil8 - I give him a thing

n'mil8n - I give him the thing

k'mil8 - you give him a thing

k'mil8n - you give him the thing

k'milegw – he gives you

k'milegon – he give you it

n'mil8bna we give him/them a (ex)

k'mil8bna we give him/them a (in)

k'mil8ba - you give him a thing

k'mil8nn8 - you give him a thing

k'milibna – you give us a

k'milinana – you give us it

n'mil8nana we give him/them it (ex)

k'mil8nana we give him/them it (in)

k'mil8ba - you give him the thing

k'mil8nn8 - you give him the thing




Who, when, that, what Word Forms

wligen milimek – it is good when I am given something!


Milimek

when I am given

when someone (1) gives me (2) something (3)

-

8da milimokw

when I am not given

Milelek

when you are given

when someone (1) gives you (2) something (3)

-

8da milelokw

when you are not given

Mil8mek

when he is given

when someone (1) gives him (2) something (3)

-

mil8mokw

when he is not given

milian

when you give me/us

-

8da miliwan

when you don't give me

milelan

when I give you

-

8da milelowan

when I don't give you

milat

when you give him/them

-

8da mil8wan

when you don't give him/them

miliakw

when you (plural) give me/us

-

8da miliwakw

when you (plural) don't give me/us

milelakw

when I give you all

-

8da milelowakw

when I don't give you all

milok

when I give him/them

-

8da mil8wa

when I don't give him/them

milit

when he gives me/us

-

8da milikw

when he does not give me

milelak

when we give you

-

8da milelowak

when we don't give you

milak

when we (ex) give him/them

-

8da mil8wak

when we (ex) don't give him/them

milihidit

when they give me/us

-

8da milihidikw

when they do not give me/us

milesk

when he/they gives you/you all

-

8da milelokw

when he/they does not give you

milakw

when we (in) give him

-

8da mil8wakw

when we (in) don't give him



milakw

when you all give him/them

-

8da mil8wakw

when you all don't give him/them



mil8t

when he gives him/them

-

8da mil8kw

when he doesn't gives him/them

milzia

what I give myself

-

8da milziwa

when I don't give myself

milzian

what you give yourself

-

8da milziwan

when you don't give yourself

milzit

what he gives himself

-

8da milzikw

when he doesn't give himself




The Pattern:


_______ imek

when I am given

when someone (1) gives me (2) something (3)

-

8da _______ imokw

when I am not given

_______ elek

when you are given

when someone (1) gives you (2) something (3)

-

8da _______ elokw

when you are not given

_______ 8mek

when he is given

when someone (1) gives him (2) something (3)

-

_______ 8mokw

when he is not given

_______ zia

what I give myself

-

8da _______ ziwa

when I don't give myself

_______ zian

what you give yourself

-

8da _______ ziwan

when you don't give yourself

_______ zit

what he gives himself

-

8da _______ zikw

when he doesn't give himself

_______ ian

when you give me/us

-

8da _______ iwan

when you don't give me

_______ elan

when I give you

-

8da _______ elowan

when I don't give you

_______ at

when you give him/them

-

8da _______ 8wan

when you don't give him/them

_______ iakw

when you (plural) give me/us

-

8da _______ iwakw

when you (plural) don't give me/us

_______ elakw

when I give you all

-

8da _______ elowakw

when I don't give you all

_______ ok

when I give him/them

-

8da _______ 8wa

when I don't give him/them

_______ it

when he gives me/us

-

8da _______ ikw

when he does not give me

_______ elak

when we give you

-

8da _______ elowak

when we don't give you

_______ ak

when we (ex) give him/them

-

8da _______ 8wak

when we (ex) don't give him/them

_______ ihidit

when they give me/us

-

8da _______ ihidikw

when they do not give me/us

_______ esk

when he/they gives you/you all

-

8da _______ elokw

when he/they does not give you

_______ akw

when we (in) give him

-

8da _______ 8wakw

when we (in) don't give him



_______ akw

when you all give him/them

-

8da _______ 8wakw

when you all don't give him/them



_______ 8t

when he gives him/them

-

8da _______ 8kw

when he doesn't gives him/them

Examples:

1. Nd'alamizi kchi niwaskw milit wlidbamalsw8gan akw8bigadmaa.

I'm thankful that the great spirit that he gave me health in spite of my age. CW


2. N'-d-alamizowi wahw8gom8 Tabaldak milit s8glamalsow8gan akw8bigademaa.

`I thank the Lord who gives me good health in my age. JL84:99



Common Ditransitives:


lakawi – throw me something

wijokami – help me do something

ab8nkawi – cook me something

mili – give me something

hli – tell me

sami – feed me

namithli – show me

kinawi – look at me

kitawi – hear me

tbestawi – listen to me

nadmihi – lend me

kemodnawi – steal from me

nadodmawi – ask me

mikolawami – remind me of something

ônkawôdokawi - interpret for me, speak as my substitute

adagenemawi - cheat me

mozmawi - cut my hair

azimawa - dip (water) for me, give me a drink

nimskamawi - fetch something for me

nôbamakawi - step in my tracks, follow in my foot- steps, follow my example

jibadegwenamawi – somone makes the sign of cross on me by hand

tmezemawi – someone cuts something for me

gadzemawi – someone cuts it off for me

pitsenawi – someone fills a pipe for me

nosokamawi – someone follows it for me

dalijigitamawa - leave it for someone there

jigitamawi - he leaves it for me

gikinamawi - look at something of mine

gizitawi - make something for me

bigwedanemawi - open it for me

lagwenamawi - direct me, point out something for me

lôwigôdamawi - point your finger at me

gebahamawi - shut something for me

jannemawi - stop something for me

wikwikadawi - draw someone to me

adelitakamawi - get in front of me

nadialwawi - hunt in the interest of me

nadialwawad – the one who hunts for someone else, he hunts for someone

zôbodakawi - make a hole through me

gachkônewi - scratch someone/something for me

witamawi - tell to me for me to learn, teach me

gelahamawi - forbid me, hold or stop me from doing something

galahamawad – the one who is forbiden

anhaldamawi – someone forgives me of something

bôbatamawawi - pray for me

siziwanamawi - rattle for me

bonamawi – someone replaces something for me

askodamawi - signal me with a gun

nadodemawi - ask me something

baganemawi - break off a piece for me

gizanohomawi - can buy something for me, already buy something for me

wiwnitahamawi - he helps me strike around (as in catching muskrats), he strikes around for me

olikawi - build a house for me, build me a nice house

wikawi - build a house for me

ademikawi - overtake me; reach or catch me

maotakawi - hit me with body or foot, collide but not face to face, collide as with shoulder

gibtakawi - knock me down, wound me with an instrument



Last but not least...


We can also make our own Ditransitives using our favorite inanimate verbs!!


namito = namitawi = see something for me, in my interest

waj8nem = waj8nemawi = have something for me

gelnem = gelnemawi = hold something for me

kizito = kizitawi = make something for me

kwilawato = kwilawatawi = search for something for me

meskam = meskamawi = find something for me



... more lessons coming soon!


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