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Western Abenaki Adjectival Endings
Adjective Endings
Updated 12-09-14

TYPE 1: COMMON

Singular

Plural

II Independent

1. -gen

2. -genol

II Conjunct

3. -gek

4. -kkil

AI Independent

5. -go

6. -goak

AI Conjunct

7. -gid

8. -gijik


1. II Independent Singular: -gen

Wligen. It is good. JL84:66

N'pilaskom w8bigen. `My paper is white.' II JL84:45

Mkwigen w'maksam. his blanket is red. CW Lesson 10

Wiz8wigen n'm8dlat. my coat is yellow. CW Lesson 10

W8bigen w'pitk8zon. his/her dress is white. CW Lesson 10

W8bigen w'w8baks. his/her shirt is white. CW Lesson 10

Askaskwigen? Askaskwigen ta8lawi, wigebi odatsow8. Is it green? It is sort of green, they die the splint. GD Edward Hannis Reel 51 Side 1

W'-d-asolkw8n wibeguigen. `His (her) hat is grey.' JL84:46

Abagigen k'-d-abaznoda? Is your basket flat? JL84:67

Abagigen n'-d-abaznoda. My basket is flat. JL84:67

Wligen kiuna wji u kdainana. It is good for us to be here. Mark:81:5

Paami wligen kia wji kbidigan pm8zow8ganek. It is better for you to enter in to life. Mark:89:43

Siwan wligen. Salt it is good. Mark:91:50

U tebaikisos8gan pita wligen. `This watch is very good.' JL84:103

Chowi ato melikigen. `I suppose it is strong.' JL84:114

N'-d-elaldam wligenba; `I think it would be good' JL84:114

T8ni lligen k-d-aki? `How is your ground? II JL84:117

Kam8ji, pita ni wligen. `Well, that's very good.' JL84:117

kl8gan mlikigen. The door is strong. Masta:63

ni tsowi ligen ni abazi. It should be like that wood. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

tsowi ligen ni t8ni abazi akw8bigadmaik. It should be like that when the tree is that age. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

yo abazi mol8gen. This wood is deep. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

askaskwigen ta8lawi. It is sort of green, EH R51 S1

Ni kanwa baamiga oligen yo. But more it is better this one. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Paami msagen kedakiw8. Your territory is bigger. Theo Panadis, Reel 27, Side 2 The Singing Beaver of Missisquoi

Pk8gigen ni. It is crooked that one. Theo Panadis, Reel 27-1 Mossehock Moccasin

8da kagwi wjignowi. It yeilded no fruit. Nothing came from it. Mark 4:7

8nda nanh8gignowi kk8kidw8gan. Masta:38

owagani kchi majigwinowi patlih8z. Masta:28

2. II Independent Plural: -genol

w8bigenol. `They are white, ( -- things).' JL84:202

Kl8ganal mlikigenol. 'The doors are strong' Masta:63

Wskigenol k'mkezenal. Your shoes are new. CW Lesson 15

Wibgwigenol n'medasal. my socks are grey. CW Lesson 10

Min8bowigenol pskwassaw8nal. the flowers are purple. CW Lesson 10

Mkazawigenol k'mezenal. your shoes are black. CW Lesson 10

Wsizgol wl8wigenol. his/her eyes are blue. CW Lesson 10

Wanibagol askaskwigenol. the leaves are green. CW Lesson 10

Nd'ilh8 8wdial aloa waijiwi pakignol. I will tell him the roads are almost always clear. CW Lesson 26

Wsizgol nojmignol. He has weak eyes. CW Lesson 27

paami wlignol adbimnal. Very good cherries. Masta:43

O'da tatebigenowial. `They are not alike.' JL84:67

3. II Conjunct Singular: -gek

Waligek. Good, handsome. JL84:67

Abagigek abaznoda. A flat basket. JL84:70

Makazawigek silki. Some black silk'; `-- ribbon. JL84:69

Nokigek abazi. Some soft wood. JL84:70

N'waj8nem nokigek abazi. `I have some soft wood.' JL84:72

Malkigek kadosmow8gan. Spirituous liquor', (literally: `strong beverage.') JL84:70

K'wikuenembenaba malkigek kadosmow8gan. `We would take some (spirituous) liquor.' JL84:72

N'-d-achoaldam silki w8bigek. `I want some white silk.' JL84:72

Niga ligdaii kwajmiwi spiwi na san8ba spiwi wiz8wigek w8baks. Then jump outside with the man with the shirt that is yellow. CW Lesson 190

Idamoda ni kedatsowaldamen kinawi aligek abazenoda. Let's say that you want such a kind of basket. R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

N8bitok ni aligek. Make that the same the way that it is. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis

Ali g8wigek. The way that it is is rough. R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

t8ni azaskwigek ala pedgwigek t8ni ga altsowaldaman? How square or round do want it? R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

T8ni atsowi nospigek. How tall it should be. Theo Panadis, Reel 27-1 Mossehock Moccasin

Od'awamin awani alemi gizi tabi nokigek. Someone puts on their shoes after it is solf enough. Theo Panadis, Reel 27-1 Mossehock Moccasin

Na agw8dawas pita agwa ktsidamigo. That fungus its is said that is is very important. Ambrose Obomsawin, Reel 30-1-2 Odzihozo

Ktsidamigen nbizon. It is important medicine. Ambrose Obomsawin, Reel 30-1-2 Odzihozo

Sen n8bi aligek ni kwahliwi matanaskigek ni Kchi Menahan. A stone that is similar near the end of Grand Isle. Ambrose Obomsawin, Reel 30-1-2 Odzihozo

Ni wdihl˘n li wlaldam˘wadin sandaiwi lalokan waligek, ala lalokan majigek? And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? Mark:25:4

Ni wmitsin˘ ta wamipwak, ta odemn˘ akwjit˘zik michw˘gan sakwskigek t˘baw˘z ahaznodaal ali psantak, So they did eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets. Mark page 73:8

Ni kizi kizigak ni wdellagim˘n nodalokaliji notkikadikok, wajiba wji mzennek mink˘gan wajigek m˘l˘gwimnakik˘nek. And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. Mark page 111:2

Ni akwaltak ni achi ahhaligek, u agwachi, kdachwi las˘jin kiji aln˘ba tah˘lawi kiatta. Ondat˘m˘ kdak chowagidamw˘gan paamitbak ˘daki ulil. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. Mark page 118:31

4. II Conjunct Plural: -kkil

Majikkil pilaskwim8nial. The counterfeit bank notes. JL84:69

W8bikkil masksaal. White blankets. JL84:69

K'manohomebaji walikkil wigw8mal. `You will buy fine (good) houses.' JL84:70

Awakatoak w8bikkil masksaal.`They use white blankets.' JL84:72

Wlitoakba walikkil tasakwabonal. `They would make fine chairs.' JL84:71

Nda ato ni natamiwi ni oliton8 ni alikil. Its probably not the first time that they make them that way. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis

Papitegwikil nilil. These ones that are round. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Ni wgizida8zin niga oliton aida magesinal, waolikil magesinal. Then she decided and she made shoes, shoes that were very nice. Reel 27-2-2

Msaldoshanil ni ahalikkil tbaskodigani klozw˘ganal awakkashanil witamaw˘t ketw˘gan akw˘bi kizi li wawtamohodiza. And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it. Mark page 39:33

Wz˘mi paliwi kbonmenn˘ Tabaldak wdellagidamw˘gan ni kgagalnemn˘ wd˘h˘nkaw˘jmow˘ganow˘ pm˘wzowinnoak, k˘dak ali chowi kesbahal˘mek kwatak ta kwatsizak; ta msaldol kdagil ni ahalikkil kagwessol alalokaagwil. For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups; and many other such like things ye do. Mark page 65:8

Kdelliton˘ Tabaldak wgellozw˘gan waji ˘da kagweswinnokw alalokaik kiuw˘ kmit˘jmow˘ganow˘, enni kilw˘w˘ kiztoakw; ta msaldol kdagil kagwessol alalokaagwil ni ahalikkil. Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye. Mark page 66:13 Wz˘mi al˘mek, wlaw˘ganow˘k pm˘wzowinnoak ni wadosaik majikkil lidah˘zw˘ganal, azogw˘ganal, kiwhlow˘ginal, nhlikaw˘ganal. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders Mark page 68:21

Mziwi ulil majikkil wdosawwel al˘mek ta wdagwjagihogonal awani. All these things come from within, and defile the man. Mark page 68:23

Msaldoshanil ni ahalikkil tbaskodigani klozw˘ganal awakkashanil witamaw˘t ketw˘gan akw˘bi kizi li wawtamohodiza. And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it. Mark page 39:33

5. AI Independent Singular: -go

W8bigo. `He (she) is white.' JL84:130

Wibguigo n'-d-aasom. `My horse is grey.' JL84:46

Wibguigoa w'-d-asoma. `His (her) horse is grey.' JL84:46

San8ba mlikigo. The man is strong. Masta:62

nd'odakaw8 nid8ba kwinnata wzig88zo toji nojimego nikw8bi nda amochka spig8dawawi l8daw8gan. I visited my friend he suffers greatly he is so weak now he can not even climb the stairs. CW Lesson 28

Mlikigo na san8ba ala phanem. Strong man or woman. CW Lesson 27

Kezabaala na wskinnosis agwjagigo. Clean that little boy he is dirty. CW Lesson 190

6. AI Independent Plural: -goak

W8bigoak. `They are white.' JL84:131

Wilawigoak tatebiwi. `They are both rich.' JL84:97

Saagigoak tatebiwi? 'Are they both industrious?' JL84:97

San8bak mlikigoak. The men are strong. Masta 63

Majigoak nigik alemossak. Those dogs are mean. CW Lesson 15

7. AI Conjunct Singular: -gid

Waligit. Good, handsome. JL84:67

Majigit aples. A bad apple JL84:69

W8bigit azib. A white sheep. JL84:69

N'-d-achoalm8 sku8sontagw w8bigit. `I want some white thread.' JL84:72

N'nihl8 w8bigit azib. `I killed the white sheep.' JL84:71

Makazawigit sku8zontagw. Some black thread. JL84:69

Malkigit san8ba A stout man JL84:70

Nokigit pohkuasimon. A soft pillow. JL84:70

N'waj8n8 nokigit pohkuasimon. `I have a soft pillow.' JL84:72

N'-d-8gazah8benaba malkigit san8ba. `We would hire a stout man.' JL84:72

Abazik adali m8dzagit sawi wel8mkwakw. On a tree there it grows sometimes a burl. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Abagigit amkw8n. A flat spoon. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Paami ngemat wji kamal wz˘bosan sas˘bnet ali tawigit ˘daki wilawigwinno wbidigan wginjameswi tbaldamw˘ganek Kchiniwaskw! It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. Mark page 96:25

8. AI Conjunct Plural: -gijik

Abagigijik pot8iiak. Flat bottles. JL84:70

K'waj8n8bena waligijik asesak? `Have we some good horses?' JL84:70

K'waj8n8bena waligijik asesak? `Have we some good horses?' JL84:70

Angitta W8bigijik m8ja aidit Swanton Vt. When the Whites first settled at Swanton, Vt. Masta 31

Negwagwadzed8wadin odzi kedaln8bamnawak tekwen8dzidzik pedegi pedzidakamek wadzi 8wiidit. I try for my people who are prisoners to send them back to their home. Reel 27-2-2

Ni Sazos wdabin tadbeskawiwi m˘ni tatabakamek, ni wnamih˘n pm˘wzowinnoa adoji agad˘dmi tabakaoldilit m˘ni tatabakamek, ta msalok wilawigijik masali tabakajik. And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much. Mark page 121:41

Ni kanwa Sazos namitokw alalokalit oskinnoma, pita ˘da wig˘damowi, ta wdihl˘, chigitaokw aw˘ssizak nn˘dos˘mgon˘, ta akwi klahamaokw; wz˘mi ni ahhaligijik ni wginjameswi tbaldamw˘gan Kchiniwaskw. But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God. Mark page 94:14

T˘nwajitta naton˘t pazgoa ni ahhaligiliji aw˘ssisa nia wji nwizw˘gan, nnitonekw: ta t˘nwajitta natonit, ˘da nia natonit, wniton˘h˘daki nihi pajidak˘lgo˘ni. Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth not me. Mark Page 88:37

Ibitta gwagwadzi meganokw walidebigidzik. Only try to collect th ones that are good. GD REEL 27 Side 1 Curing by personal power by Theo Panadis

TYPE 2: RARE

Singular

Plural

II Independent

1. -en

2. -nol

II Conjunct

3. -ek, -ik

4. -igil, -ekil

AI Independent

5. -o

6. -wak

AI Conjunct

7. -id

8. -ijik


1. II Independent Singular: -en

Nan8gsesen. It is light in weight. GDD

Biwsesen. It is small. GDD

Dagasesen it is a few, a few. GDD

Wzomi piwsessen. It is too small. R52S1 Edward Hannis

2. II Independent Plural: -nol

Wakesnol a few. GDD

3. II Conjunct Singular: -ik, -ek

Piwsessek. `Little, small.' JL84:67

Piwsessek nbizonkik8n. `A small garden.' JL84:69

Pizwadoik alokawogan. `A fruitless labour.' JL84:70

Wlito pizwadoik alokaw8gan. He (she) makes a useless work. JL84:72

Na piwsesik yo oliton8 wadziba ta8lawi kinamothloodit t8ni masegwikwek tsowi lit8zo.

This little-one here they make it so would sort of they-show hot the big one should it be made. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

4. II Conjunct Plural: -igil, -ekil

W'-d-8pchi nokapodonal piwsessekil nbizonkik8nal. He (she) is harrowing the small gardens. JL84:71

yolil piwsesigil. These little ones. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

5. AI Independent Singular: -o

biwseso. He is small. GDD

kwenagwzo na wskinnos That young man is tall.

6. AI Independent Plural: -wak

dagaseswak. Few, they are a few.

Wakaswak. A few. GDD

7. AI Conjunct Singular: -id

Piwsessit. `Little, small.' JL84:67

Mali wigawessa James piwsessit. Mary the mother of James who is small. Mark 15:40

Pizwadoit nodalokat. `A heartless servant.' JL84:70

O'da n'-d-achwalm8w pizwadoit nodalokad. I don't want a heartless servant. JL84:72

8. AI Conjunct Plural: -ijik

Piwsessijik alemossak. `Little dogs.' JL84:69

N'nanawalm8nnawakji piwsessijik alemossak. `We will keep the little dogs.' JL84:71

Mziwi papiwsessidzik ibigata odzi aw8sizak. All small ones only for children. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin.

kokoha8kwizak dakwizesidzik. Little fir trees that are short. GD REEL 27 Side 1 Curing by personal power by Theo Panadis

TYPE 3: RARE

Singular

Plural

II Independent

1. ?

2. ?

II Conjunct

3. -gwigwek

4. -gwikwkil

AI Independent

5. ?

6. ?

AI Conjunct

7. -gilek

8. -gilijik


3. II Conjunct Singular: -gwigwek

Masegwikwek. Big inanimate one. GDD

Masguikwek `Great, large, big.' JL84:67

Ni gakwsa yo olawakan8 wadzi tabi msegwikek. And what do they use this for, providing it is big enough. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Kanewa mamsegwikwek sen wadziba kinawitigan. But its a very big stone to be a marker. GDR3:S2 EH

Mziwi aligwikwek Vermont odagwelom8sino. All that there is of Vermont they claimed as theirs. Simosis Obonsawin, Reel 15-1 Iroquois Claim to Vermont

4. II Conjunct Plural: -gwikwkil

Maseguikwkil kik8nal. `Large fields.' JL84:69

K'kiz'8nkolh8nal maseguikwkil kik8nal.`Have you (thou) sold the large fields?' JL84:71

7. AI Conjunct Singular: -gilek

Masgilek. `Great, large, big.' JL84:67

masegilek. Big animate one. GDD

Masegilek wdah8gan. `A long (large) paddle, JL84:69

K'kiz'8nkolh8n masegilek wdah8gan? `Have you (thou) sold the large paddle?' JL84:71

Ni wa gedak wbita masegilek megos. And this other-one this very big one awl. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

8. AI Conjunct Plural: -gilijik

nda t8m8 nikw8bi kenami8 masgilek, masgilidzik. Never now you see big one, ones. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

TYPE 4: RARE

Singular

Plural

II Independent

1. -a

2. ?

II Conjunct

3. -ak

4. -akil

AI Independent

5. -izo

6. ?

AI Conjunct

7. -izid

8. -izijik


1. II Independent Singular:

Kepaga. It is thick. GDD

N8negonia. (also Type 1: n8negonigen) It is old. JL:84

Wskia. (also Type 1: wskigen) It is new. JL:84

Kpaga k'm8dlat. Your coat is thick. CW Lesson 15

2. II Independent Plural: none found

3. II Conjunct Singular: -ak

Kapagak. `Thick.' JL84:68

Wazabak. `Thin.' JL84:68

S8glak wagin. `A strong waggon.' JL84:70

N'-d-alokamib s8glak wagin. `I ordered a strong waggon.' JL84:72

4. II Conjunct Singular: -akil

Wazabagil medasal. `Thin socks.' JL84:70

Kapagakil mkezenal. `Thick moccasins, or shoes.' JL84:70

K'waj8nem nawa al8msagol sigwtagil? `Have you any spare rooms?' JL84:108

K'kiz'anohobmebesa kapagakil mkezenal? `Did you buy some thick moccasins?' JL84:73

5. AI Independent Singular: -izo

Kpagizo pkuami.`The ice is thick.' JL84:67

W'meljassa wazabizoa. His (her) mittens are thin.' JL84:67

6. AI Independent Plural: none found

7. AI Conjunct Singular: -izid

Wazabizit, `Thin.' JL84:68

Kapagizit. `Thick.' JL84:68

S8glizit. `Solid, strong, durable' JL84:68

S8glizit wak8lihws. `A strong cart'; ` -- wheel.' JL84:69

K'-d-alokamibesa s8glizit wak8likws? `Did you order a strong cart?' JL84:72

Wazabizit madagen. `A thin hide.' JL84:70

T8ni kapagizit? How think you want it? AO GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Ala wazabizit? Ot thin? GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Nidzi akw8bi wazabizit, wigebi. I will be that thin the splint. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

8. AI Conjunct Plural: - izijik

Kapagizijik meljassak. `Thick mittens.' JL84:70

K'kiz'anoh8k kapagizijik meljassak? `Did you buy the thick mittens?' JL84:72

N'manoh8ba wazabisijik madagenok.`I should buy some thin hides. 'JL84:73

TYPE 5: VERY RARE

Singular

Plural

II Independent

1. -an

2. ?

II Conjunct

3. -gwak

4. ?

AI Independent

5. ?

6. ?

AI Conjunct

7. -gwelek

8. ?


1. II Independent Singular:

Tekwigwan it is heavy. GDD

3. II Conjunct Singular: -gwak

Tekwigwak. The heavy inanimate one. GDD

Takwiguak. `Heavy.' JL84:68

Takwiguak 8badahon.`A heavy cane.' JL84:70

7. AI Conjunct Singular: -gwelek

Takwiguelek. `Heavy.' JL84:68

Takwiguelek nidazo. `A heavy animal.' JL84:70

TYPE 6: TRI-PART

Singular

Plural

II Independent

1. -gwat

2. -gwatal

II Conjunct

3. -gwak

4. -gwakil

AI Independent

5. -gwezo

6. -gwezoak

AI Conjunct

7. -gwezid

8. -gwezijik


1. II Independent Singular: -gwat

olin8gwat. It looks good. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

oliodzim8gwat. It smells good. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

askamim8gwat. It smells forever. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

ato n8wad olim8gwat. Probably long ago it smels good. GD R52S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

n8negonnin8gwat. It looks very old. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

ni odzi odenemen wadzi kwedzitaman t8ni lidabi siwanipogwat. Then take it to taste whether enough it tastes salty. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

paami lagwin8gwat yo. it looks more like this. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

Ni alewa tadebat lin8gwat alidzi awdo8gan. And it looks like soon that will war. Reel 27-2-2

3. II Conjunct Singular: -gwak

paami aln8bain8gwak. That it looks more Indian. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

tagwawin8gwak. Something that looks finished. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin

odagwagwiton8 nspiwi wawlim8gwak mskiko. They finish it with sweet smelling grass. Ambrose Obomsawin. Reel 51 Side 1

6. AI Independent Plural: -gwezoak

Mziwiga nigik kokokha8kwizak m8shagin8gwezoak. All those little firs look strange. Reel 27, Side 1, Curing bu Personal Power, Theo Panadis

7. AI Conjunct Singular: -gwezid

wadzi sidzin8gwezit. To look like it. GD R51S1 Edward Hannis/Ambroise Obomsawin



No Pattern Yet Determined (Irregulars)

Ozesgwiganal ozomi daakaswal. His legs are too short. Ambrose Obomsawin Reel 301-1-1. Odziozo Shapes the world

Gizi katsiawit. After he became old. Ambrose Obomsawin, Reel 30-1-2 Odzihozo

... more lessons coming soon!




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